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Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst in Lean Gasoline Engine Exhaust

2015-04-14
2015-01-1008
Ethanol is a very effective reductant for nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environments. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the U.S., lean gasoline engines equipped with Ag/Al2O3 catalysts have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for evaluation of catalyst performance.
Technical Paper

Product Selectivity During Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

2006-10-16
2006-01-3441
NOx reduction product speciation during regeneration of a fully formulated lean NOx trap catalyst has been investigated using a bench-scale flow reactor. NH3 and N2O were both observed during the regeneration phase of fast lean/rich cycles that simulated engine operation. Formation of both products increased with higher reductant concentrations and lower temperatures. Steady flow experiments were used to decouple the regeneration reactions from the NOx storage and release processes. This approach enabled a detailed investigation into the reactions that cause both formation and destruction of non-N2 reduction products. Pseudo-steady state experiments with simultaneous flow of NOx and reductant indicated that high concentrations of CO or H2 drive the reduction reactions toward NH3 formation, while mixtures that are stoichiometric for N2 formation favor N2. These experiments also showed that NH3 is readily oxidized by both NO and O2 over the LNT catalyst.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1505
A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at λ=0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the λ=0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant.
Journal Article

Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-1033
We compare the simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional heavy duty (HD) truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential benefit for HD hybrid vehicles during highway driving.
Journal Article

Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR During PCCI Combustion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1080
The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which has smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0934
Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
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