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Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430°C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ∼1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK).
Technical Paper

Graphitic Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging

The goal of this program is to utilize the recently developed high conductivity carbon foam for thermal management in electronics (heat exchangers and heat sinks). The technique used to fabricate the foam produces mesophase pitch-based graphitic foam with extremely high thermal conductivity and an open-celled structure. The thermal properties of the foam have been increased by 79% from 106 to 187 W/m·K at a density of 0.56 g/cm3 through process optimization. It has been demonstrated that when the high-thermal-conductivity graphitic foam is utilized as the core material for the heat exchanger, the effective heat transfer can be increased by at least an order of magnitude compared to traditional designs. A once-through-foam core/aluminum-plated heat exchanger has been fabricated for testing in electronic modules for power inverters.
Technical Paper

Manufacturing of Carbon Fibers Using Microwave-Assisted Plasma Technology

The most significant obstacle to the widespread use of carbon-fiber-based composites by the automotive industry is the high cost of carbon fibers in comparison to other potential structural materials. Carbon fibers are currently produced by thermal pyrolysis of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to obtain the desired properties. The most significant cost factors in the process are the high cost of precursors and the high capital equipment and energy costs in conversion to carbon fiber. The Department of Energy is supporting developmental efforts to reduce costs in both precursor production and conversion areas. This paper describes developments in the conversion process. Because of the unsuccessful results of manufacturing carbon fibers through their direct heating with microwave radiation (variable frequency microwave [VFM] and single frequency microwave [SFM] energy), new avenues were explored for this processing.
Technical Paper

Advanced Materials Characterization at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

The HTML (High Temperature Materials Laboratory) is a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility, offering opportunities for in-depth characterization of advanced materials, specializing in high-temperature-capable structural ceramics. Available are electron microscopy for micro-structural and microchemical analysis, equipment for measurement of the thermophysical and mechanical properties of ceramics to elevated temperatures, X-ray and neutron diffraction for structure and residual stress analysis, and high speed grinding machines with capability for measurement of component shape, tolerances, surface finish, and friction and wear properties. This presentation will focus on structural materials characterization, illustrated with examples of work performed on heat engine materials such as silicon nitride, industrial refractories, metal-and ceramic-matrix composites, and structural alloys.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program

The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Fatigue Sensitivity to Void Content for 3D Reinforced Composites

Three dimensional fabrics have seen increasing use lately as composite reinforcements. Advantages over prepreg or chopped fiber processes can include cost, handling, consistent quality, impact behavior, and resistance to delamination [1]. To gain acceptance in the transportation industry it is imperative that properties including dynamic and fatigue behavior be designable. A Progressive Failure Analysis (PFA) was developed jointly by Alpha Star Corp and NASA to predict fatigue life of composites and determine their damage mechanisms so that the life could be extended. The title of this software package is GENOA™, and it was used to focus on the three dimensional fabric called 3WEAVE™ made by 3TEX, Inc. It was discovered through fatigue testing that void content greatly affected fatigue life for the 3D E-glass fabric reinforcing a polyurethane modified vinyl ester resin called Dion 9800 from Reichhold. This is a common characteristic for most structural materials.
Technical Paper

Effects of Silicon and Boron Additions on the Susceptibility to Quench Embrittlement and the Bending Fatigue Performance of Vacuum Carburized Modified 4320 Steel

The effect of B and Si additions on fracture and fatigue performance of vacuum carburized 4320 steel and modifications of 4320 steel containing additions of Si (1.0 and 2.0 wt pct) and B (0 and 17 ppm) was evaluated by bending fatigue testing. Three rates of gas quenching, in 10 bar nitrogen and 15 and 20 bar helium, were used to cool specimens after carburizing. The B, protected by Ti additions, together with the Si additions, increased core hardenability. The B/Si modified steels showed no improvement in fatigue resistance, as measured by endurance limits established by 10 million cycle runouts without fracture. However, scanning electron microscopy showed that Si reduced sensitivity to intergranular fracture or quench embrittlement, a major cause of bending fatigue crack initiation, and contributed to variable fatigue performance, with both low-cycle failures and runout performance at applied stresses significantly above measured endurance limits.
Technical Paper

Effects of Friction Stir Processing on Mechanical Properties of the Cast Aluminum Alloy A356

Surfaces of A356 castings were treated by friction stir processing to reduce porosity and to create more uniform distributions of second-phase particles. Dendritic microstructures were eliminated in stir zones. The ultimate tensile strength, ductility, and fatigue life of the cast A356 was increased by friction stir processing. Tensile specimens of cast and friction stir processed metal were also given a T7 heat treatment. Higher tensile strengths and ductilities were also measured for these friction stir processed specimens.
Technical Paper

A Thermal Conductivity Approach for Measuring Hydrogen in Engine Exhaust

Thermal conductivity detection has long been used in gas chromatography to detect hydrogen and other diatomic gases in a gas sample. Thermal conductivity instruments that are not coupled to gas chromatographs are useful for detecting hydrogen in binary gas mixtures, but suffer from significant cross-interference from other gas species that are separated when the detector is used with a gas chromatograph. This study reports a method for using a commercially-available thermal conductivity instrument to detect and quantify hydrogen in a diesel exhaust stream. The instrument time response of approximately 40 seconds is sufficient for steady-state applications. Cross-interference from relevant gas species are quantified and discussed. Measurement uncertainty associated with the corrections for the various species is estimated and practical implications for use of the instrument and method are discussed.
Technical Paper

Tribological Characteristics of Electrolytic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Cylinder Lining Applications

The friction and wear characteristics of three commercially-available, electrolytic coatings for aluminum engine cylinder bores were compared to those of cast iron liners. A Ni/SiC electrocomposite, a hard anodized treatment, and a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated. ASTM standard test method G133-95, non-firing test method, for linearly reciprocating sliding wear was modified to use segments of piston rings and cylinder liners. Tests were conducted using Mr. Goodwrench™ 5W30 as a lubricant at room temperature. The normal force was 150N, the reciprocating frequency was 15Hz, the stroke length was 8mm, and the test duration was 60 minutes. Kinetic friction coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.22, typical of boundary lubrication. The Ni/SiC and cast iron samples exhibited the lowest friction. The wear resistance of the Ni/SiC coating was superior to that of cast iron.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels

Failure mode and fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welds made with convex and concave tools in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated based on experiments and a kinked fatigue crack growth model. Lap-shear specimens with the welds were tested under both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs indicate that under both quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, the welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the tools were plunged in during the welding processes. Based on the observed failure mode, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives of the welds. In the kinked crack fatigue crack growth model, the stress intensity factor solutions for fatigue life estimations are based on the closed-form solutions for idealized spot welds in lap-shear specimens.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Ultrasonic Spot Welds with Adhesive in Lap-Shear Specimens of Magnesium and Steel Sheets

Failure modes and fatigue behaviors of ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium AZ31B-H24 and hot-dipped-galvanized mild steel sheets with and without adhesive are investigated. Ultrasonic spot welded, adhesive-bonded, and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens were made. These lap-shear specimens were tested under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The ultrasonic spot weld appears not to provide extra strength to the weld-bonded lap-shear specimen under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The quasi-static and fatigue strengths of adhesive-bonded and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens appear to be the same. For the ultrasonic spot welded lap-shear specimens, the optical micrographs indicate that failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under quasi-static and low-cycle loading conditions to the kinked crack growth mode under high-cycle loading conditions.
Journal Article

Failure Modes of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Failure modes of friction stir spot welds in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions based on experimental observations. Optical micrographs of dissimilar DP780GA/HSBS friction stir spot welds made by a concave tool before and after failure are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite similar. The micrographs show that the DP780GA/HSBS welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the concave tool was plunged into during the welding process. Based on the observed failure modes, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Ultrasonic Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Magnesium and Steel Sheets

Fatigue behavior of dissimilar ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium AZ31B-H24 and hot-dipped-galvanized mild steel sheets is investigated based on experimental observations, closed-form stress intensity factor solutions, and a fatigue life estimation model. Fatigue tests were conducted under different load ranges with two load ratios of 0.1 and 0.2. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the welds. The micrographs show that the welds mainly fail from kinked fatigue cracks growing through the magnesium sheets. The optical micrographs also indicate that failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under low-cycle loading conditions to the transverse crack growth mode under high-cycle loading conditions. The closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of the welds are used to explain the locations of fatigue crack initiation and growth.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Diesel Engine Combustion using Diesel and Bio-diesel Fuels

A computational study using multi-dimensional CFD modeling was performed to investigate the effects of physical properties on diesel engine combustion characteristics with bio-diesel fuels. Properties of typical bio-diesel fuels that were either calculated or measured are used in the study and the simulation results are compared with those of conventional diesel fuels. The sensitivity of the computational results to individual physical properties is also investigated, and the results provide information about the desirable characteristics of the blended fuels. The properties considered in the study include liquid density, vapor pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, liquid specific heat, latent heat, vapor specific heat, vapor diffusion coefficient, vapor viscosity and vapor thermal conductivity. The results show significant effects of the fuel physical properties on ignition delay and burning rates at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Phosphorous Poisoning and Phosphorous Exhaust Chemistry with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Phosphorous in diesel exhaust is derived via engine oil consumption from the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil additive used for engine wear control. Phosphorous present in the engine exhaust can react with an exhaust catalyst and cause loss of performance through masking or chemical reaction. The primary effect is loss of light-off or low temperature performance. Although the amount of ZDDP used in lube oil is being reduced, it appears that there may is a minimum level of ZDDP needed for engine durability. One of the ways of reducing the effects of the resulting phosphorous on catalysts might be to alter the chemical state of the phosphorous to a less damaging form or to develop catalysts which are more resistant to phosphorous poisoning. In this study, lube oil containing ZDDP was added at an accelerated rate through a variety of engine pathways to simulate various types of engine wear or oil disposal practices.