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Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Optimization of Diesel Fuel Properties and Chemistry in an HCCI Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2645
The nine CRC fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE fuels) have been evaluated in a simple, premixed HCCI engine under varying conditions of fuel rate, air-fuel ratio, and intake temperature. Engine performance was found to vary mainly as a function of combustion phasing as affected by fuel cetane and engine control variables. The data was modeled using statistical techniques involving eigenvector representation of the fuel properties and engine control variables, to define engine response and allow optimization across the fuels for best fuel efficiency. In general, the independent manipulation of intake temperature and air-fuel ratio provided some opportunity for improving combustion efficiency of a specific fuel beyond the direct effect of targeting the optimum combustion phasing of the engine (near 5 CAD ATDC).
Technical Paper

Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Derived Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

2009-11-02
2009-01-2646
In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point. The fuels were run in a simple HCCI engine to evaluate combustion performance. Each cut exhibited elevated NOx emissions, from 150 to 300ppm higher than conventional ULSD under similar conditions. Engine performance and operating range were additionally dictated by distillation temperatures which are a useful predictor variable for this fuel set. In general, cuts with low boiling point achieved optimal HCCI combustion phasing while higher boiling point cuts suffered a 25% fuel economy decrease, compared to conventional diesel under similar HCCI conditions, and incurred heavy engine deposits.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Combustion Energy Release on Surface Accelerations of an HCCI Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2741
Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Modeling of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Model Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0669
To address the growing need for accurate predictions of combustion phasing and emissions for development of advanced engines, a more accurate definition of model fuels and their associated chemical-kinetics mechanisms are necessary. Wide variations in street fuels require a model-fuel blending methodology to allow simulation of fuel-specific characteristics, such as ignition timing, emissions, and fuel vaporization. We present a surrogate-blending technique that serves as a practical modeling tool for determination of surrogate blends specifically tailored to different real-fuel characteristics, with particular focus on model fuels for gasoline engine simulation. We start from a palette of potential model-fuel components that are based on the characteristic chemical classes present in real fuels. From this palette, components are combined into a surrogate-fuel blend to represent a real fuel with specific fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Predicting Emissions Using CFD Simulations of an E30 Gasoline Surrogate in an HCCI Engine with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0362
To accurately predict emissions as well as combustion phasing in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, detailed chemistry needs to be used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling. In this work, CFD simulations of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) gasoline HCCI engine have been performed with full coupling to detailed chemistry. Engine experiments using an E30 gasoline surrogate blend were performed at ORNL, which included measurements of several trace species in the exhaust gas. CFD modeling using a detailed mechanism for the same fuel composition used in the experiments was also performed. Comparisons between data and model are made over a range of intake temperatures. The (experiment & model) surrogate blend consists of 33 wt % ethanol, 8.7 % n-heptane and 58.3 % iso-octane. The data and simulations involve timing sweeps using intake temperature to control combustion phasing at a constant fuel rate.
Technical Paper

Performance of Biodiesel Blends of Different FAME Distributions in HCCI Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1342
As the world market develops for biodiesel fuels, it is likely that a wider variety of biodiesels will become available, both locally and globally, and require engines to operate on a wider variety of fuels than experienced today. At the same time, tighter emissions regulations and a drive for improved fuel economy have focused interest on advanced combustion modes such as HCCI or PCCI, which are known to be more sensitive to fuel properties. This research covers two series of biodiesel fuels. In the first, B20 blends of natural methyl esters derived from palm, coconut, rape, soy, and mustard were evaluated at light load in an HCCI research engine to determine combustion and performance characteristics. These fuels showed performance differences between the biodiesels and the base #2 ULSD fuel, but did not allow separation of chemical effects due to the small number of fuels and correlation of various properties.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Specific Effect of Exhaust Gas Residuals on HCCI Combustion: A Modeling Study

2008-10-06
2008-01-2402
A modeling study was performed to investigate fuel-specific effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) components on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion at conditions relevant to the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy using CHEMKIN-PRO. Four single-component fuels with well-established kinetic models were chosen: n-heptane, iso-octane, ethanol, and toluene. These fuels were chosen because they span a wide range of fuel chemistries, and produce a wide compositions range of complete stoichiometric products (CSP). The simulated engine conditions combined a typical spark ignition engine compression ratio (11.34) and high intake charge temperatures (500-550 K) that are relevant to NVO HCCI. It was found that over the conditions investigated, all the fuels had overlapping start of combustion (SOC) phasing, despite the wide range in octane number (RON = 0 to 120).
Technical Paper

The Chemistry, Properties, and HCCI Combustion Behavior of Refinery Streams Derived from Canadian Oil Sands Crude

2008-10-06
2008-01-2406
Diesel fuels derived from different types of crude oil can exhibit different chemistry while still meeting market requirements and specifications. Oil sands derived fuels typically contain a larger proportion of cycloparaffinic compounds, which result from the cracking and hydrotreating of bitumens in the crude. In the current study, 17 refinery streams consisting of finished fuels and process streams were obtained from a refinery using 100% oil sands derived crude oil. All samples except one met the ULSD standard of 15 ppm sulfur. The samples were characterized for properties and chemistry and run in a simple premixed HCCI engine using intake heating for combustion phasing control. Results indicate that the streams could be equally well characterized by chemistry or properties, and some simple correlations are presented. Cetane number was found to relate mainly to mono-aromatic content and the cycloparaffins did not appear to possess any unique diesel related chemical effects.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of HCCI Ignition Characteristics of Gasoline Fuels Using a Single-Zone Kinetic Model with a Five Component Surrogate Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2399
While gasoline surrogate development has progressed in the areas of more complex surrogate mixtures and in kinetic modeling tools and mechanism development, it is generally recognized that further development is still needed. This paper represents a small step in supporting this development by providing comparisons between experimental engine data and surrogate-based kinetic models. In our case, the HCCI engine data comes from a port-injected, single-cylinder research engine with intake-air heating for combustion phasing control. Timing sweeps were run at constant fuel rate for three market gasolines and five surrogate mixtures. Modeling was done using the CHEMKIN software with a gasoline mechanism set containing 1440 species and 6572 reactions. Five pure compounds were selected for the surrogate blends and include iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, methylcyclohexane, and 1-hexene.
Technical Paper

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0376
This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Statistical Comparison of Engine Response as a Function of Fuel Chemistry and Properties in CI and HCCI Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-0857
Knowledge of how fuel chemistry and properties affect engine response is necessary for effective engine control. It may also be possible to tailor fuels to specific combustion modes, engine geometries, or for desired outputs to generate lower emissions and/or higher IMEP and efficiency. Fuel chemistry and properties have different effects on engine performance in CI and HCCI combustion. In this study, experiments were performed using a 517cc Hatz single-cylinder diesel engine and the same engine converted to run in HCCI mode, both equipped with advanced combustion analysis equipment. Engine performance results were modeled statistically with respect to fuel properties, operating parameters, and engine type to determine the extent to which fuel characteristics influence engine response, and how the response differs between the two combustion modes. Experiments were performed using 16 fuels: ULSD, 9 FACE diesel fuels, and 6 P20 blends of unprocessed plant oils.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number and Engine Speed Effects on Diesel HCCI Performance and Emissions

2005-10-24
2005-01-3723
The effects of cetane number (CN) on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) performance and emissions were investigated in a single cylinder engine using intake air temperature for control. Blends of the diesel secondary reference fuels for cetane rating were used to obtain a CN range from 19 to 76. Sweeps of intake air temperature at a constant fueling were performed. Low CN fuels needed to be operated at higher intake temperatures than high CN fuels to achieve ignition. As the intake air temperature was reduced for a given fuel, the combustion phasing was retarded, and each fuel passed through a phasing point of maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Early combustion phasing was required for the high CN fuels to prevent misfire, whereas the maximum IMEP for the lowest CN fuel occurred at a phasing 10 crank angle degrees (CAD) later.
Technical Paper

Partial Oxidation Products and other Hydrocarbon Species in Diesel HCCI Exhaust

2005-10-24
2005-01-3737
A single cylinder engine was operated in HCCI mode with diesel-range fuels, spanning a range in cetane number (CN) from 34 to 62. In addition to measurements of standard gaseous emissions (CO, HC, and NOx), multiple sampling and analysis techniques were used to identify and measure the individual exhaust HC species including an array of oxygenated compounds. A new analytical method, using liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in tandem with ultraviolet (UV) detection, was developed to analyze the longer chain aldehydes as well as carboxylic acids. Results showed an abundance of formic and butyric acid formation at or near the same concentration levels as formaldehyde and other aldehydes.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

2006-10-16
2006-01-3275
The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.34 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small.
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid 2-Zone/WAVE Engine Combustion Model for Simulating Combustion Instabilities During Dilute Operation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3801
Internal combustion engines are operated under conditions of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce NOx emissions and promote enhanced combustion modes such as HCCI. However, high EGR under certain conditions also promotes nonlinear feedback between cycles, leading to the development of combustion instabilities and cyclic variability. We employ a two-zone phenomenological combustion model to simulate the onset of combustion instabilities under highly dilute conditions and to illustrate the impact of these instabilities on emissions and fuel efficiency. The two-zone in-cylinder combustion model is coupled to a WAVE engine-simulation code through a Simulink interface, allowing rapid simulation of several hundred successive engine cycles with many external engine parametric effects included.
Technical Paper

Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0872
Widespread implementation of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines is presently hindered by stability, control, and load range issues. Although the operable HCCI speed/load range is expanding, it is likely that the initial HCCI engines will rely on conventional combustion for part of the operating cycle. In the present study, we have investigated the role of fuel properties and chemistry on the operation of a spark-assisted gasoline HCCI engine. The engine employed is a single cylinder, 500 cc, port fuel injected research engine, operating near lambda = 1.0 and equipped with hydraulic variable valve actuation. HCCI is initiated by early exhaust valve closing to retain exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. This is also referred to as a ‘negative overlap’ strategy.
Technical Paper

On the Nature of Cyclic Dispersion in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0418
We report experimental observations of cyclic combustion variability during the transition between propagating flame combustion and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in a single-cylinder, stoichiometrically fueled, spark-assisted gasoline engine. The level of internal EGR was controlled with variable valve actuation (VVA), and HCCI combustion was achieved at high levels of internal EGR using the VVA system. Spark-ignition was used for conventional combustion and was optionally available during HCCI. The transition region between purely propagating combustion and HCCI was mapped at multiple engine speeds and loads by incrementally adjusting the internal EGR level and capturing data for 2800 sequential cycles. These measurements revealed a complex sequence of high COV, cyclic combustion variations when operating between the propagating flame and HCCI limits.
Technical Paper

Accelerometer Based Sensing of Combustion in a High Speed HPCR Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0972
The capability to detect combustion in a diesel engine has the potential of being an important control feature to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations and for the development of alternative combustion strategies such as HCCI and PCCI. In this work, block mounted accelerometers are investigated as potential feedback sensors for detecting combustion characteristics in a high-speed, high pressure common rail (HPCR), 1.9L diesel engine. Accelerometers are positioned in multiple placements and orientations on the engine, and engine testing is conducted under motored, single and pilot-main injection conditions. Engine tests are then conducted at varying injection timings to observe the resulting time and frequency domain changes of both the pressure and acceleration signals.
Technical Paper

The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Components Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4059
In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may alter other specifications. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used as an adjunct to regression analysis in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and potential to uncover ‘hidden’ relationships between the variables.
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