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Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis for the Performance Characteristics of Engine Bearings due to Variability in Bearing Properties

2003-05-05
2003-01-1733
This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine without performing time consuming analyses. The metamodels are developed based on results from actual simulation solvers computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. A finite difference bearing solver is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric Latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space. The development of the metamodels is validated by comparing results from the metamodels with results from the actual bearing performance solver over a large number of evaluation points. Once the metamodels are established they are employed for performing probabilistic analyses.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Engine Block and a Rotating Crankshaft Coupled Through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1724
A comprehensive formulation is presented for the dynamics of a rotating flexible crankshaft coupled with the dynamics of an engine block through a finite difference elastohydrodynamic main bearing lubrication algorithm. The coupling is based on detailed equilibrium conditions at the bearings. The component mode synthesis is employed for modeling the crankshaft and block dynamic behavior. A specialized algorithm for coupling the rigid and flexible body dynamics of the crankshaft within the framework of the component mode synthesis has been developed. A finite difference lubrication algorithm is used for computing the oil film elastohydrodynamic characteristics. A computationally accurate and efficient mapping algorithm has been developed for transferring information between a high - density computational grid for the elastohydrodynamic bearing solver and a low - density structural grid utilized in computing the crankshaft and block structural dynamic response.
Technical Paper

Oil Film Dynamic Characteristics for Journal Bearing Elastohydrodynamic Analysis Based on a Finite Difference Formulation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1669
A fast and accurate journal bearing elastohydrodynamic analysis is presented based on a finite difference formulation. The governing equations for the oil film pressure, stiffness and damping are solved using a finite difference approach. The oil film domain is discretized using a rectangular two-dimensional finite difference mesh. In this new formulation, it is not necessary to generate a global fluidity matrix similar to a finite element based solution. The finite difference equations are solved using a successive over relaxation (SOR) algorithm. The concept of “Influence Zone,” for computing the dynamic characteristics is introduced. The SOR algorithm and the “Influence Zone” concept significantly improve the computational efficiency without loss of accuracy. The new algorithms are validated with numerical results from the literature and their numerical efficiency is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Optimal Idle Speed Control of an Automotive Engine

1998-02-23
981059
An optimal idle speed control (ISC) system for an automotive engine is introduced in this paper. The system is based on a non-linear model including time delay. This model is linearized at the nominal operating point. The effect of the time delay on control is compensated by prediction. This methodology is applied to a Chrysler 2.0 liter 4-cylinder SOHC (Single Overhead Cam) engine. All of the unknown parameters of the model are identified by using the normal operating data from the test engine. Based on these identified parameters, an optimal controller was designed and implemented using a rapid prototyping system. Numerous experiments of the optimal controller were carried out at the Chrysler Technology Center in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The performance was compared to that of the existing controller. The results showed that the optimal controller has the capability to effectively control the engine idle speed under a variety of accessory loads and disturbances.
Technical Paper

Sheared Edge Stretchability of Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1708
In recent years, dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) are considered as prominent materials in the automotive industry due to superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Another major issue in the trimming of UHSS is tool wear because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic phase in the microstructure. The objective of the current paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality and stretchability of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel and compared with other steels such as HSLA 350 and BH210.
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

2017-03-28
2017-01-1612
Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Technical Paper

A Decision Analytic Approach to Incorporating Value of Information in Autonomous Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0799
Selecting the right transportation platform is challenging, whether it is at a personal level or at an organizational level. In settings where predominantly the functional aspects rule the decision making process, defining the mobility of a vehicle is critical for comparing different offerings and making acquisition decisions. With the advent of intelligent vehicles, exhibiting partial to full autonomy, this challenge is exacerbated. The same vehicle may traverse independently and with greater tolerance for acceleration than human occupied vehicles, while, at the same time struggle with obstacle avoidance. The problem presents itself at the individual vehicle sensing level and also at the vehicle/fleet level. At the sensing and information level, one can be looking at issues of latency, bandwidth and optimal information fusion from multiple sources including privileged sensing. At the overall vehicle level, one focuses more on the ability to complete missions.
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni

2016-04-05
2016-01-0421
This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0993
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-1091
Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Sensitivity of the Performance Criteria of an Automotive Cyclone Particle Separator to CFD Modeling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1176
Predicting the optimum performance parameters of an automotive cyclone particle separator (separation efficiency and pressure drop) using computational fluid dynamics by varying its geometrical parameters is challenging and a time consuming process due to the highly swirling nature of the flow. This study presents results of three investigations of the performance and design of a cyclone separator: a sensitivity analysis, deterministic optimization and a reliability based design optimization. All three cases involved variation of four geometric parameters that characterize the design of the cyclone.
Technical Paper

Effect of Threaded Fastener Condition on Low Cycle Fatigue Failures in Metric Bolts Under Transverse Loading

2008-04-14
2008-01-0700
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of threaded fastener condition on the low cycle fatigue behavior of a tightened metric fastener under a fully reversed, cyclic transverse load. The test set-up subjects tightened, threaded fasteners to the combined effect of axial, torsional, bending, and transverse shear loading. The two conditions of the fasteners were “as received” and “ultrasonically cleaned and oiled”. Fatigue performance at three different bolt tension levels was investigated. Based on preliminary testing arbitrarily selected amplitude of 0.05 inches was used for the cyclic transverse displacement, at a frequency of 10 Hz. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to assess the failure mode on a bolt fracture surface. The bolt stresses are sensitive to both thread and under head friction characteristics.
Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0162
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Control using H∞ Loop Shaping

2009-04-20
2009-01-0954
The development of a robust feedback slip controller for a torque converter clutch (TCC) is presented in this paper. The dynamic behavior of the TCC is modeled utilizing the principles of input-output system identification. An H∞ loop shaping controller design technique is applied in order to ensure robust stability against unmodeled system dynamics and large variations in system parameters. Road driving tests indicate that the control system achieves high levels of reliability and stability.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Behaviors of a Silicon Rubber based Composite Material for PEM Fuel Cell

2009-04-20
2009-01-1005
With increasing demand for cost-effective fuel cells, it is essential to investigate alternative materials for components of the fuel cells. The objective of this paper is to implement elastomeric materials (silicon rubber) for the use of bipolar plates in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Two different types of conductive fillers, a graphite fiber and flake, were added at different concentrations to a two-component silicone rubber slurry. Electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the composite material were investigated. Comparable electrical and thermal conductivities were achieved to that of commercially available plates. The silicone rubber based composite material maintained elastomeric properties for improved sealing of cell fluid reactants and products.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Cell Performance and Water Accumulation in a Transparent PEM Fuel Cell

2009-04-20
2009-01-1006
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells have grown in research and development for many applications due to their high efficiency and humble operating condition requirements. Water management in the cathode region of the PEM fuel cell is an essential and sensitive phenomenon for cold environments and fuel cell’s performance. This paper investigates the behavior of water production by constructing a transparent-cathode PEM fuel cell. The effects of pressure, relative humidity, and cathode stoichiometric ratio on the production of water as a function of time were studied. Each test set is compared to a reference state. The images of water liquid accumulation inside the cathode bipolar plate channels are shown with the corresponding polarization curves.
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