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Technical Paper

Radial-Ply vs. Bias-Ply Tires' Transmissibility

2007-04-16
2007-01-1513
Full nonlinear finite element radial-ply and bias-ply tire models are developed to investigate different structured tires' transmissibility phenomena. The reaction forces of the tire axles in time domain are recorded first when the tires encounter a bump (cleat), and then the FFT algorithm is applied to examine the dynamic response information in frequency domain. The results of the radial-ply vs. bias-ply tires' transmissibility are validated against previous studies and show reasonable agreement.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Sensitivity of the Performance Criteria of an Automotive Cyclone Particle Separator to CFD Modeling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1176
Predicting the optimum performance parameters of an automotive cyclone particle separator (separation efficiency and pressure drop) using computational fluid dynamics by varying its geometrical parameters is challenging and a time consuming process due to the highly swirling nature of the flow. This study presents results of three investigations of the performance and design of a cyclone separator: a sensitivity analysis, deterministic optimization and a reliability based design optimization. All three cases involved variation of four geometric parameters that characterize the design of the cyclone.
Technical Paper

Effect of Head and Neck Anthropometry on the Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Prepubescent Children

2009-06-09
2009-01-2302
Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation.
Journal Article

On the Time-Dependent Reliability of Non-Monotonic, Non-Repairable Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0696
The system response of many engineering systems depends on time. A random process approach is therefore, needed to quantify variation or uncertainty. The system input may consist of a combination of random variables and random processes. In this case, a time-dependent reliability analysis must be performed to calculate the probability of failure within a specified time interval. This is known as cumulative probability of failure which is in general, different from the instantaneous probability of failure. Failure occurs if the limit state function becomes negative at least at one instance within a specified time interval. Time-dependent reliability problems appear if for example, the material properties deteriorate in time or if random loading is involved which is modeled by a random process. Existing methods to calculate the cumulative probability of failure provide an upper bound which may grossly overestimate the true value.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0416
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
Technical Paper

Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0418
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue Using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0159
We present an Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model and material uncertainty. This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at a higher loading level, resulting in a reduction in test duration. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the fatigue life Probability Density Functions (PDFs).
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation and Optimization of Computational Methods for High Pressure Fuel Pipe Brazed Joints

2018-04-03
2018-01-1222
A V-engine high pressure fuel pipe have experienced several failures during dyno engine validations at brazed joints due to combination of static and dynamic engine loads. The braze fillet experience high local stress concentration with large gradients and it was critical to capture strain contour at this spot to properly understand the failure. Strain gauges was used to measure strain but was incapable of capturing the braze fillet due to the small fillet radius and lack of real estate to install the gauge (braze fillet radius ~ 0.10 mm). A whole field optical experiment method Digital Image Correlation was utilized to successfully captured strain contour at area of interest and results fed back to computational model.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Approximating Convective Boundary Conditions for Transient Thermal Simulations with Surrogate Models for Thermal Packaging Studies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0904
The need for transient thermal simulations in vehicle packaging studies has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, the computational costs associated with the transient simulation of 3D conjugate heat transfer phenomena has prohibited the widespread use of full vehicle transient simulations. This paper presents results from a recent study that explored a method to circumvent the computational costs associated with long transient conjugate heat transfer simulations. The proposed method first segregates the thermal structural and fluid physics domains to take advantage of time scale differences. The two domains are then re-coupled to calculate a series of steady state conjugate heat transfer simulations at various vehicle speeds. The local convection terms are then used to construct a set of surrogate models dependent on vehicle speed, that predict the local heat transfer coefficients and the local near wall fluid temperatures.
Technical Paper

Real Time 2D Pose Estimation for Pedestrian Path Estimation Using GPU Computing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0887
Future fully autonomous and partially autonomous cars equipped with Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) should assure safety for the pedestrian. One of the critical tasks is to determine if the pedestrian is crossing the road in the path of the ego-vehicle, in order to issue the required alerts for the driver or even safety breaking action. In this paper, we investigate the use of 2D pose estimators to determine the direction and speed of the pedestrian crossing the road in front of a vehicle. Pose estimation of body parts, such as right eye, left knee, right foot, etc… is used for determining the pedestrian orientation while tracking these key points between frames is used to determine the pedestrian speed. The pedestrian orientation and speed are the two required elements for the basic path estimation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) of Sheet Metal based on the DBS System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1088
Springback is a common phenomenon in automotive manufacturing processes, caused by the elastic recovery of the internal stresses during unloading. A thorough understanding of springback is essential for the design of tools used in sheet metal forming operations. A DBS (Draw-bead Simulator) has been used to simulate the forming process for two different sheet metals: aluminum and steel. Two levels of pulling force and two die radii have been enforced to the experimental process to get different springback. Also, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system has been adopted to capture the sheet contour and measure the amount of side-wall-curl (sheet springback) after deformation. This paper presents the influence of the material properties, force, and die radius on the deformation and springback after forming. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon is essential, seeing that any curvature in the part wall can affect quality and sustainability.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Contact and Wear Analysis of Stator and Rotor in a Screw Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0813
The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to estimate the wear between rotor and stator of the screw pump, under static and transient conditions, respectively, by using a two- dimensional finite element model. Because the velocity and the contact pressure were varied at the point of contact, it made the problem nonlinear and complicated, as the plane motion of the rotor in the stator. A geometry analysis, which incorporated a finite element method is developed to solve the problem. The variation of wear with frequency, friction coefficient and also with interference is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0487
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Technical Paper

GPU Implementation for Automatic Lane Tracking in Self-Driving Cars

2019-04-02
2019-01-0680
The development of efficient algorithms has been the focus of automobile engineers since self-driving cars become popular. This is due to the potential benefits we can get from self-driving cars and how they can improve safety on our roads. Despite the good promises that come with self-driving cars development, it is way behind being a perfect system because of the complexity of our environment. A self-driving car must understand its environment before it makes decisions on how to navigate, and this might be difficult because the changes in our environment is non-deterministic. With the development of computer vision, some key problems in intelligent driving have been active research areas. The advances made in the field of artificial intelligence made it possible for researchers to try solving these problems with artificial intelligence. Lane detection and tracking is one of the critical problems that need to be effectively implemented.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Drivetrain Dynamic Performance Considering Uncertainty

2005-05-16
2005-01-2371
A vehicle drivetrain is designed to meet specific vehicle performance criteria which usually involve trade-offs among conflicting performance measures. This paper describes a methodology to optimize the drivetrain design including the axle ratio, transmission shift points and transmission shift ratios considering uncertainty. A complete vehicle dynamic model is developed using the bond graph method. The model includes the vehicle, engine, transmission, torque converter, driveline, and transmission controller. An equivalent MATLAB Simulink model is also developed in order to carry out the nonlinear dynamic analysis efficiently. A deterministic optimization is first performed to determine the optimum design in terms of fuel economy, without considering variations or uncertainties. Subsequently, a Reliability-Based Design Optimization is carried out to find the optimum design in the presence of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Propagation of Uncertainty in Optimal Design of Multilevel Systems: Piston-Ring/Cylinder-Liner Case Study

2004-03-08
2004-01-1559
This paper proposes an approach for optimal design of multilevel systems under uncertainty. The approach utilizes the stochastic extension of the analytical target cascading formulation. The reliability of satisfying the probabilistic constraints is computed by means of the most probable point method using the hybrid mean value algorithm. A linearization technique is employed for estimating the propagation of uncertainties throughout the problem hierarchy. The proposed methodology is applied to a piston-ring/cylinder-liner engine subassembly design problem. Specifically, we assess the impact of variations in manufacturing-related properties such as surface roughness on engine attributes such as brake-specific fuel consumption. Results are compared to the ones obtained using Monte Carlo simulation.
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