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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Sensitivity of the Performance Criteria of an Automotive Cyclone Particle Separator to CFD Modeling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1176
Predicting the optimum performance parameters of an automotive cyclone particle separator (separation efficiency and pressure drop) using computational fluid dynamics by varying its geometrical parameters is challenging and a time consuming process due to the highly swirling nature of the flow. This study presents results of three investigations of the performance and design of a cyclone separator: a sensitivity analysis, deterministic optimization and a reliability based design optimization. All three cases involved variation of four geometric parameters that characterize the design of the cyclone.
Journal Article

Analysis of Trimming Processes for Advanced High Strength Steels

2009-04-20
2009-01-1175
Presented are analytical and experimental results for both the conventional trimming process and a recently developed robust trimming process, which involves dulling the upper trimming tool and providing elastic offal support. The robust process, which has strong potential to lower the requirements for the accuracy of trim die alignment, is analyzed. Material flow of the trimming process is modeled numerically using the commercially available LS-Dyna finite element program and an in-house finite element program, called Solid 2D. An experimental technique, which provides plane strain material deformation data as a function of hydrostatic pressure has been developed. Experimental results from the plane strain FLD test and a single interrupted trimming test were obtained in order to find agreement between analytical and experimental results. Analysis of the mechanisms of blank separation in conventional trimming and trimming with an elastic scrap support is also provided.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Strain on Edge Cracking Limit for Advanced High-Strength Steel Using Digital Image Correlation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0394
Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is gaining popularity in the automotive industry due to its higher final part strength with the better formability compares to the conventional steel. However, the edge fracture occurs during the forming procedure for the pre-strained part. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the effect of pre-strain on edge cracking limit needs to be studied. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC), as an accurate optical method, is adopted for the strain measurement to determining the edge cracking limit. Sets of the wide coupons are pre-strained to obtain the samples at different pre-strain level. The pre-strain of each sample is precisely measured during this procedure using DIC. After pre-straining, the half dog bone samples are cut from these wide coupons. The edge of the notch in the half dog bone samples is created by the punch with 10% clearance for the distinct edge condition.
Technical Paper

Dimension Study of Punched Hole Using Conical Tipped Punches

2016-04-05
2016-01-0364
Dimensional problems for punched holes on a sheet metal stamping part include being undersized and oversized. Some important relationships among tools and products, such as the effect of conical punch tip angle, are not fully understood. To study this effect, sheets of AA6016 aluminum and BH210 steel were punched by punches with different conical tip angles. The test method and test results are presented. The piercing force and withdrawing force when using conical punches were also studied. The results indicate that the oversize issue for a punched hole in a stamped panel is largely due to the combination of the conical tip effect and the stretching-release effect.
Technical Paper

Sheared Edge Stretchability of Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1708
In recent years, dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) are considered as prominent materials in the automotive industry due to superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Another major issue in the trimming of UHSS is tool wear because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic phase in the microstructure. The objective of the current paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality and stretchability of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel and compared with other steels such as HSLA 350 and BH210.
Technical Paper

The Role of Second Phase Hard Particles on Hole Stretchability of Two AA6xxx Alloys

2017-03-28
2017-01-0307
The hole stretchability of two Aluminum Alloys (AA6111 and AA6022) are studied by using a two stages integrated finite element framework where the edge geometry and edge damages from the hole piercing processes were considered in the subsequent hole expansion processes. Experimentally it has been found that AA6022 has higher hole expansion ratios than those of AA6111. This observation has been nicely captured by finite element simulations. The main cause of differences have been identified to the volume fractions of the random distributed second phase hard particles which play a critical role in determining the fracture strains of the materials.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurement of Residual Stress at the Deep-Rolled Crankshaft Fillet

2004-03-08
2004-01-1500
Crankshaft fillet is subjected to a cyclic bending stress during operation. Fatigue cracks are observed at the fillet during the fatigue test. Compressive stresses are generated by deep-rolling process in order to increase the surface hardness and improve the fatigue strength. To examine the deep-rolling effect, the residual stresses at the fillet need to be investigated. Incremental hole drilling and ISSR (interferometric strain/slope rosette) method is applied to measure the residual stresses at the bottom of the fillet. Incremental hole drilling process is to gradually remove material and mill a hole on the specimen surface in order to relax stress. The ISSR is composed of three micro-indentations, which are indented near the hole and would generate interferometric fringe patterns upon incident laser beam. With incremental drilling, stress relaxation causes the relieved strains, which in turn cause the shifts of interferometric patterns.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Balance between Reliability and Robustness in Engine Cooling System Optimal Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0594
This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Transient Flow Effects on the Separation Parameters of a Reverse Flow Type Cyclone Particle Separator

2008-04-14
2008-01-0419
This study is concerned with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of flow in an automotive reverse flow type cyclone particle separator using the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) turbulence model. Steady simulations were found to never fully converge, with pressure, velocity and vorticity results exhibiting small oscillations as the solution was iterated further. Transient simulations showed the presence of a main vortex precession that resulted in periodic fluctuations of the flow parameters. Fourier analysis was used to characterize this semi-periodic flow feature and to assess its effect on the two main performance measures of the cyclone: overall pressure drop and particle separation efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effects of Tuner Parameters on Hydraulic Noise and Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1776
Passengers' frequent requests are for less Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) in the vehicle compartment. This and the reduction of noise and vibration levels from major sources like the engine necessitate better performance of other sources of noise and vibrations in a vehicle. Some of these sources are the hydraulic circuits including the power steering system. Fluid pulses or pressure ripples, generated typically by a pump, become excitation forces to the structure of a vehicle or the steering gear and represent a considerable source of discomfort to the vehicle passengers. Current power steering technology attenuates this ripple along the pressure line connecting the pump to the steering gear. Finding the optimum design configuration for the components (hose, tuner, tube, and others) has been a matter of experience-based trial and error. This paper is a part of a program to simulate and optimize fluid borne noise in hydraulic circuits.
Technical Paper

Towards Shape Optimization of Radiator Cooling Tanks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0952
With increased demand for improvements in the efficiency and operation of all automotive engine components, including those in the engine cooling system, there is a need to develop a set of virtual tools that can aid in both the evaluation and design of automotive components. In the case of automotive radiators, improvements are needed in the overall pressure drop as well as the coolant flow homogeneity across all radiator tubes. The latter criterion is particularly important in the reduction of premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad hoc geometry changes with the goal of improving the performance of radiators, the coupling of CFD flow simulations with numerical shape optimization methods could assist in the design and testing of automotive heating and cooling components.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0949
There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Technical Paper

On the Use of a Honda 600cc 4-Cylinder Engine for Formula SAE Competition

2005-04-11
2005-01-0025
The Formula SAE® rules require the use of a 20mm intake restrictor. The presence of the restrictor necessitates the design or retuning of fuel and spark strategies that, in turn require the use of a programmable engine control unit (ECU). This paper describes a process used to establish the fuel and spark strategies for a standard production motorcycle engine operating with a restricted air intake. Honda 600cc engines were controlled by three different ECUs: a Haltech, DTA and an “in-house” ECU. Simple calculations of injection duration are suggested to provide a baseline fuel map from which the engine could be started, and then fuel maps are tuned by experiment. Similar baseline numbers for ignition timing are given.
Journal Article

Study of the Motion of Floating Piston Pin against Pin Bore

2013-04-08
2013-01-1215
One of the major problems that the automotive industry faces is reducing friction to increase efficiency. Researchers have shown that 30% of the fuel energy was consumed to overcome the friction forces between the moving parts of any automobile, Holmberg et al. [1]. The interface of the piston pin and pin bore is one of the areas that generate high friction under severe working conditions of high temperature and lack of lubrication. In this research, experimental investigation and theoretical simulation have been carried out to analyze the motion of the floating pin against pin bore. In the experimental study, the focus was on analyzing the floating pin motion by using a bench test rig to simulate the floating pin motion in an internal combustion engine. A motion data acquisition system was developed to capture and record the pin motion. Thousands of images were recorded and later analyzed by a code written by MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1423
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

2007-05-15
2007-01-2236
Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-04-16
2007-01-1251
An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

2007-04-16
2007-01-1249
Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Journal Article

Scuffing Behavior of 4140 Alloy Steel and Ductile Cast Iron

2012-04-16
2012-01-0189
Scuffing is a failure mechanism which can occur in various engineering components, such as engine cylinder kits, gears and cam/followers. In this research, the scuffing behavior of 4140 steel and ductile iron was investigated and compared through ball-on-disk scuffing tests. A step load of 22.2 N every two minutes was applied with a light mineral oil as lubricant to determine the scuffing load. Both materials were heat treated to various hardness and tests were conducted to compare the scuffing behavior of the materials when the tempered hardness of each material was the same. Ductile iron was found to have a consistently high scuffing resistance before tempering and at tempering temperatures lower than 427°C (HRC ≻45). Above 427°C the scuffing resistance decreases. 4140 steel was found to have low scuffing resistance at low tempering temperatures, but as the tempering temperature increases, the scuffing resistance increased.
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