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Technical Paper

Balance between Reliability and Robustness in Engine Cooling System Optimal Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0594
This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
Technical Paper

Relative Contributions of Intake and Exhaust Tuning on SI Engine Breathing - A Computational Study

2007-04-16
2007-01-0492
This study examines the contributions and interactions of intake and exhaust tuning on a 4-stroke single-cylinder engine for various engine speeds and valve timings. The parametric study was performed using a 1-D engine simulation model, the combustion sub-model of which was calibrated based on experimental pressure data. Mechanisms by which tuning changes the volumetric efficiency of an engine were studied. Simulation results are compared with established empirical correlations which predict pipe lengths for maximum volumetric efficiency. It was found that intake tuning has a more dominant role in the breathing capability of the engine compared to exhaust tuning and that both are independent from each other. Valve timing was found to have no effect on intake tuning characteristics but to affect exhaust tuning.
Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-04-16
2007-01-1251
An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

2007-04-16
2007-01-1249
Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

2007-05-15
2007-01-2236
Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Local Heat Flux Measurements in a Straight Pipe Extension of an Exhaust Port of a Spark Ignition Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-3990
Experiments were carried out on a straight pipe extension of an exhaust port of a multi-cylinder, spark-ignition engine to investigate the axial variation of the steady-state surface heat transfer. Local, steady-state, surface heat flux measurements were made at five different stations on the test section. Based on an optimization procedure developed in this study, the heat-flux measurements obtained for axial distances x / D > 2, were found to be correlated very well (R2 = 0.95) by an equation in the form of an entrance length correction, which is a function solely of x / D, multiplied by the Sieder-Tate convective heat transfer correlation; a correlation valid for fully-developed, steady-state, turbulent, pipe flows. Most importantly, this paper provides strong evidence that the observed heat transfer augmentation in the engine exhaust system is due solely to entrance effects and not due to flow fluctuations, which was the accepted cause.
Technical Paper

Towards Shape Optimization of Radiator Cooling Tanks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0952
With increased demand for improvements in the efficiency and operation of all automotive engine components, including those in the engine cooling system, there is a need to develop a set of virtual tools that can aid in both the evaluation and design of automotive components. In the case of automotive radiators, improvements are needed in the overall pressure drop as well as the coolant flow homogeneity across all radiator tubes. The latter criterion is particularly important in the reduction of premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad hoc geometry changes with the goal of improving the performance of radiators, the coupling of CFD flow simulations with numerical shape optimization methods could assist in the design and testing of automotive heating and cooling components.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Possibility-Based Design Optimization Method for a Combination of Interval and Random Variables

2007-04-16
2007-01-0553
Reliability-based design optimization accounts for variation. However, it assumes that statistical information is available in the form of fully defined probabilistic distributions. This is not true for a variety of engineering problems where uncertainty is usually given in terms of interval ranges. In this case, interval analysis or possibility theory can be used instead of probability theory. This paper shows how possibility theory can be used in design and presents a computationally efficient sequential optimization algorithm. The algorithm handles problems with only uncertain or a combination of random and uncertain design variables and parameters. It consists of a sequence of cycles composed of a deterministic design optimization followed by a set of worst-case reliability evaluation loops. A crank-slider mechanism example demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed sequential algorithm.
Technical Paper

System Reliability-Based Design using a Single-Loop Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0555
An efficient approach for series system reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is presented. The key idea is to apportion optimally the system reliability among the failure modes by considering the target values of the failure probabilities of the modes as design variables. Critical failure modes that contribute the most to the overall system reliability are identified. This paper proposes a computationally efficient, system RBDO approach using a single-loop method where the searches for the optimum design and for the most probable failure points proceed simultaneously. Specifically, at each iteration the optimizer uses approximated most probable failure points from the previous iteration to search for the optimum. A second-order Ditlevsen upper bound is used for the joint failure probability of failure modes. Also, an easy to implement active strategy set is employed to improve algorithmic stability.
Technical Paper

Engine Simulation of a Restricted FSAE Engine, Focusing on Restrictor Modelling

2006-12-05
2006-01-3651
One-dimensional (1D) engine simulation packages are limited in modeling flows through an adverse pressure gradient where boundary layer separation is more likely to occur, as in the case of the diffuser part of the restrictor. The restrictor modeling difficulty usually manifests itself as an engine model that consumes a lot of effort (both computational and from the user) in the modeling of the restrictor. The approach sought in this work was to provide a flow vs pressure drop dependency to the code such that it does not consume too much effort in the analysis of the restrictor. This approach is similar to that used for the valve flow, where a look up table is typically provided for determining the flow. Experimentally determined flow measurements on a thin-plate orifice, a short restrictor and a long restrictor are presented and discussed. The developed model gave excellent results in an acyclic steady-state simulation and is being integrated in the full engine model.
Technical Paper

Keyless Message Authentication by Verifying Position and Velocity for Inter-Vehicle Communication

2006-04-03
2006-01-1582
Inter-vehicle communication is being considered as a means for increasing safety and efficiency in future intelligent highways. However, the security in these future mobile ad hoc networks of vehicles should not be an after thought. The main challenges in developing such security schemes are the highly dynamic environment and the cost restrictions. In this paper, we propose a keyless scheme for message authentication in inter-vehicle communication by verifying the sender’s position and velocity. The approach relies on signal propagation time to authenticate messages being communicated. No infrastructure or dedicated hardware beyond standard GPS is required.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Drivetrain Dynamic Performance Considering Uncertainty

2005-05-16
2005-01-2371
A vehicle drivetrain is designed to meet specific vehicle performance criteria which usually involve trade-offs among conflicting performance measures. This paper describes a methodology to optimize the drivetrain design including the axle ratio, transmission shift points and transmission shift ratios considering uncertainty. A complete vehicle dynamic model is developed using the bond graph method. The model includes the vehicle, engine, transmission, torque converter, driveline, and transmission controller. An equivalent MATLAB Simulink model is also developed in order to carry out the nonlinear dynamic analysis efficiently. A deterministic optimization is first performed to determine the optimum design in terms of fuel economy, without considering variations or uncertainties. Subsequently, a Reliability-Based Design Optimization is carried out to find the optimum design in the presence of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

On the Use of a Honda 600cc 4-Cylinder Engine for Formula SAE Competition

2005-04-11
2005-01-0025
The Formula SAE® rules require the use of a 20mm intake restrictor. The presence of the restrictor necessitates the design or retuning of fuel and spark strategies that, in turn require the use of a programmable engine control unit (ECU). This paper describes a process used to establish the fuel and spark strategies for a standard production motorcycle engine operating with a restricted air intake. Honda 600cc engines were controlled by three different ECUs: a Haltech, DTA and an “in-house” ECU. Simple calculations of injection duration are suggested to provide a baseline fuel map from which the engine could be started, and then fuel maps are tuned by experiment. Similar baseline numbers for ignition timing are given.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

2004-06-08
2004-01-2005
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper

Offset Algorithm for Compound Angle Machining of Cummins Cylinder Heads

2005-04-11
2005-01-0506
Proper valve angles and concentric valve seats are critical to performance of an engine. If the valve seat were not right, the valve is not going to seat properly resulting in reduced power output. Although the performance of CNC machines is accurate, unavoidable human errors at the part loading position have serious repercussions on engine performance. A solution algorithm presented in this paper employs the principles of inverse kinematics wherein a faulty compound-hole angle axis in space caused by the translational and rotational errors at the part loading position is identified with an imaginary true axis in space by enforcing identity through a modified machine axes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Autoignition on the Heat Release Histories of a Knocking SI Engine Using Wiebe Functions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1088
In this paper, we develop a methodology to enable the isolation of the heat release contribution of knocking combustion from flame-propagation combustion. We first address the empirical modeling of individual non-autoigniting combustion history using the Wiebe function, and subsequently apply this methodology to investigate the effect of autoignition on the heat release history of knocking cycles in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We start by re-visiting the Wiebe function, which is widely used to model empirically mass burned histories in SI engines. We propose a method to tune the parameters of the Wiebe function on a cycle-by-cycle basis, i.e., generating a different Wiebe to suitably fit the heat release history of each cycle. Using non-autoigniting cycles, we show that the Wiebe function can reliably simulate the heat release history of an entire cycle, if only data from the first portion of the cycle is used in the tuning process.
Technical Paper

Effect of Threaded Fastener Condition on Low Cycle Fatigue Failures in Metric Bolts Under Transverse Loading

2008-04-14
2008-01-0700
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of threaded fastener condition on the low cycle fatigue behavior of a tightened metric fastener under a fully reversed, cyclic transverse load. The test set-up subjects tightened, threaded fasteners to the combined effect of axial, torsional, bending, and transverse shear loading. The two conditions of the fasteners were “as received” and “ultrasonically cleaned and oiled”. Fatigue performance at three different bolt tension levels was investigated. Based on preliminary testing arbitrarily selected amplitude of 0.05 inches was used for the cyclic transverse displacement, at a frequency of 10 Hz. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to assess the failure mode on a bolt fracture surface. The bolt stresses are sensitive to both thread and under head friction characteristics.
Technical Paper

Transverse Vibration of a Composite Shaft

2009-05-19
2009-01-2066
The advantages of having higher stiffness to weight ratio and strength to weigh ratio that composite materials have resulted in an increased interest in them. In automotive engineering, the weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The driveline of an automotive system can be a target for possible use of composite materials. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper presents an exact solution for the vibration of a composite driveshaft with intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. Lumped masses are placed on each side of the joint to represent the joint mass. Equations of motion are developed using the appropriate boundary conditions and then solved exactly.
Technical Paper

Imprecise Reliability Assessment When the Type of the Probability Distribution of the Random Variables is Unknown

2009-04-20
2009-01-0199
In reliability design, often, there is scarce data for constructing probabilistic models. It is particularly challenging to model uncertainty in variables when the type of their probability distribution is unknown. Moreover, it is expensive to estimate the upper and lower bounds of the reliability of a system involving such variables. A method for modeling uncertainty by using Polynomial Chaos Expansion is presented. The method requires specifying bounds for statistical summaries such as the first four moments and credible intervals. A constrained optimization problem, in which decision variables are the coefficients of the Polynomial Chaos Expansion approximation, is formulated and solved in order to estimate the minimum and maximum values of a system’s reliability. This problem is solved efficiently by employing a probabilistic re-analysis approach to approximate the system reliability as a function of the moments of the random variables.
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