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Technical Paper

Transverse Vibration of a Composite Shaft

The advantages of having higher stiffness to weight ratio and strength to weigh ratio that composite materials have resulted in an increased interest in them. In automotive engineering, the weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The driveline of an automotive system can be a target for possible use of composite materials. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper presents an exact solution for the vibration of a composite driveshaft with intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. Lumped masses are placed on each side of the joint to represent the joint mass. Equations of motion are developed using the appropriate boundary conditions and then solved exactly.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Behaviors of a Silicon Rubber based Composite Material for PEM Fuel Cell

With increasing demand for cost-effective fuel cells, it is essential to investigate alternative materials for components of the fuel cells. The objective of this paper is to implement elastomeric materials (silicon rubber) for the use of bipolar plates in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Two different types of conductive fillers, a graphite fiber and flake, were added at different concentrations to a two-component silicone rubber slurry. Electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the composite material were investigated. Comparable electrical and thermal conductivities were achieved to that of commercially available plates. The silicone rubber based composite material maintained elastomeric properties for improved sealing of cell fluid reactants and products.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Cell Performance and Water Accumulation in a Transparent PEM Fuel Cell

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells have grown in research and development for many applications due to their high efficiency and humble operating condition requirements. Water management in the cathode region of the PEM fuel cell is an essential and sensitive phenomenon for cold environments and fuel cell’s performance. This paper investigates the behavior of water production by constructing a transparent-cathode PEM fuel cell. The effects of pressure, relative humidity, and cathode stoichiometric ratio on the production of water as a function of time were studied. Each test set is compared to a reference state. The images of water liquid accumulation inside the cathode bipolar plate channels are shown with the corresponding polarization curves.
Journal Article

Tribological Performance of ZnO-Oil Nanofluids at Elevated Temperatures

The tribological performance of nanofluids consisting of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed with a stabilizer in an API Group III oil was investigated. Recent research suggests that these fluids may reduce friction and wear compared to the base oil when used as a lubricant in metal-on-metal tests. The effects of nanoparticle concentration and test temperature on friction and wear were studied. Tests were run at 50°C and 100°C to investigate the viability of the fluids at elevated temperatures because possible applications include use as engine lubricants. Nanofluids showed friction reduction of up to 5.2% and reduced wear by up to 82.8% versus oil with only stabilizer at the highest ZnO concentration and the lowest temperature. Stabilizer increased wear at every concentration, but did not affect friction significantly. Fluid viscosity was also investigated. At 30°C, significant shear-thinning behavior was observed for the 2% ZnO solution, and a viscosity versus shear rate curve was found.
Technical Paper

Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni

This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Autoignition and Flame Properties for Multicomponent Fuels Using Machine Learning Techniques

Machine learning methods, such as decision trees and deep neural networks, are becoming increasingly important and useful for data analysis in various scientific fields including dynamics and control, signal processing, pattern recognition, fluid mechanics, and chemical synthesis, etc. For future engine design and performance optimization, there is an urgent need for a robust predictive model which could capture the major combustion properties such as autoignition and flame propagation of multicomponent fuels under a wide range of engine operating conditions, without massive experimental measurement or computational efforts. It will be shown that these long-held limitations and challenges related to complex fuel combustion and engine research could be readily solved by implementing machine learning methods.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 1: Model Development

Given increasingly stringent emission targets, engine efficiency has become of foremost importance. While increasing engine compression ratio can lead to efficiency gains, it also leads to higher in-cylinder pressure and temperatures, thus increasing the risk of knock. One potential solution is the use of a Variable Compression Ratio system, which is capable of exploiting the advantages coming from high compression ratio while limiting its drawbacks by operating at low engine loads with a high compression ratio, and at high loads with a low compression ratio, where knock could pose a significant threat. This paper describes the design of a model for the evaluation of fuel consumption for an engine equipped with a VCR system over representative drive cycles. The model takes as inputs; a switching time for the VCR system, the vehicle characteristics, engine performance maps corresponding to two different compression ratios, and a drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 2: Modelling Results

Variable Compression Ratio systems are an increasingly attractive solution for car manufacturers in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption. By having the capability to operate with a range of compression ratios, engine efficiency can be significantly increased by operating with a high compression ratio at low loads, where the engine is normally not knock-limited, and with a low compression ratio at high load, where the engine is more prone to knock. In this way, engine efficiency can be maximized without sacrificing performance. This study aims to analyze how the effectiveness of a VCR system is affected by various powertrain and vehicle parameters. By using a Matlab model of a VCR system developed in Part 1 of this work, the influence of the vehicle characteristics, the drive cycle, and of the number of stages used in the VCR system was studied.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Drivetrain Dynamic Performance Considering Uncertainty

A vehicle drivetrain is designed to meet specific vehicle performance criteria which usually involve trade-offs among conflicting performance measures. This paper describes a methodology to optimize the drivetrain design including the axle ratio, transmission shift points and transmission shift ratios considering uncertainty. A complete vehicle dynamic model is developed using the bond graph method. The model includes the vehicle, engine, transmission, torque converter, driveline, and transmission controller. An equivalent MATLAB Simulink model is also developed in order to carry out the nonlinear dynamic analysis efficiently. A deterministic optimization is first performed to determine the optimum design in terms of fuel economy, without considering variations or uncertainties. Subsequently, a Reliability-Based Design Optimization is carried out to find the optimum design in the presence of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Propagation of Uncertainty in Optimal Design of Multilevel Systems: Piston-Ring/Cylinder-Liner Case Study

This paper proposes an approach for optimal design of multilevel systems under uncertainty. The approach utilizes the stochastic extension of the analytical target cascading formulation. The reliability of satisfying the probabilistic constraints is computed by means of the most probable point method using the hybrid mean value algorithm. A linearization technique is employed for estimating the propagation of uncertainties throughout the problem hierarchy. The proposed methodology is applied to a piston-ring/cylinder-liner engine subassembly design problem. Specifically, we assess the impact of variations in manufacturing-related properties such as surface roughness on engine attributes such as brake-specific fuel consumption. Results are compared to the ones obtained using Monte Carlo simulation.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurement of Residual Stress at the Deep-Rolled Crankshaft Fillet

Crankshaft fillet is subjected to a cyclic bending stress during operation. Fatigue cracks are observed at the fillet during the fatigue test. Compressive stresses are generated by deep-rolling process in order to increase the surface hardness and improve the fatigue strength. To examine the deep-rolling effect, the residual stresses at the fillet need to be investigated. Incremental hole drilling and ISSR (interferometric strain/slope rosette) method is applied to measure the residual stresses at the bottom of the fillet. Incremental hole drilling process is to gradually remove material and mill a hole on the specimen surface in order to relax stress. The ISSR is composed of three micro-indentations, which are indented near the hole and would generate interferometric fringe patterns upon incident laser beam. With incremental drilling, stress relaxation causes the relieved strains, which in turn cause the shifts of interferometric patterns.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Averaged Heat Flux Measurements in a Straight-Pipe Extension of the Exhaust Port of an SI Engine

This paper presents an experimental study of the cycle-averaged, local surface heat transfer, from the exhaust gases to a straight pipe extension of the exhaust port of a four-cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine, over a wide range of engine operating conditions, from 1000 rpm, light load, through 4000 rpm, full load. The local steady-state heat flux was well correlated by a Nusselt-Reynolds number relationship that included entrance effects. These effects were found to be the major contributor to the local heat transfer augmentation. The Convective Augmentation Factor (CAF), which is defined as the ratio of the measured heat flux to the corresponding heat flux for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, was found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number and increasing axial distance from the entrance of the test section.
Technical Paper

Balance between Reliability and Robustness in Engine Cooling System Optimal Design

This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
Technical Paper

Effects of Tuner Parameters on Hydraulic Noise and Vibration

Passengers' frequent requests are for less Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) in the vehicle compartment. This and the reduction of noise and vibration levels from major sources like the engine necessitate better performance of other sources of noise and vibrations in a vehicle. Some of these sources are the hydraulic circuits including the power steering system. Fluid pulses or pressure ripples, generated typically by a pump, become excitation forces to the structure of a vehicle or the steering gear and represent a considerable source of discomfort to the vehicle passengers. Current power steering technology attenuates this ripple along the pressure line connecting the pump to the steering gear. Finding the optimum design configuration for the components (hose, tuner, tube, and others) has been a matter of experience-based trial and error. This paper is a part of a program to simulate and optimize fluid borne noise in hydraulic circuits.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Analysis for the Performance Characteristics of Engine Bearings due to Variability in Bearing Properties

This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine without performing time consuming analyses. The metamodels are developed based on results from actual simulation solvers computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. A finite difference bearing solver is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric Latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space. The development of the metamodels is validated by comparing results from the metamodels with results from the actual bearing performance solver over a large number of evaluation points. Once the metamodels are established they are employed for performing probabilistic analyses.
Technical Paper

Towards Shape Optimization of Radiator Cooling Tanks

With increased demand for improvements in the efficiency and operation of all automotive engine components, including those in the engine cooling system, there is a need to develop a set of virtual tools that can aid in both the evaluation and design of automotive components. In the case of automotive radiators, improvements are needed in the overall pressure drop as well as the coolant flow homogeneity across all radiator tubes. The latter criterion is particularly important in the reduction of premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad hoc geometry changes with the goal of improving the performance of radiators, the coupling of CFD flow simulations with numerical shape optimization methods could assist in the design and testing of automotive heating and cooling components.
Technical Paper

On the Use of a Honda 600cc 4-Cylinder Engine for Formula SAE Competition

The Formula SAE® rules require the use of a 20mm intake restrictor. The presence of the restrictor necessitates the design or retuning of fuel and spark strategies that, in turn require the use of a programmable engine control unit (ECU). This paper describes a process used to establish the fuel and spark strategies for a standard production motorcycle engine operating with a restricted air intake. Honda 600cc engines were controlled by three different ECUs: a Haltech, DTA and an “in-house” ECU. Simple calculations of injection duration are suggested to provide a baseline fuel map from which the engine could be started, and then fuel maps are tuned by experiment. Similar baseline numbers for ignition timing are given.