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Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-04-16
2007-01-1251
An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

2007-04-16
2007-01-1249
Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration Method for Digital 3D Profilometry System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1380
Recently the use of digital 3D profilometry in the automotive industries has become increasingly popular. The effective techniques for 3D shape measurement, especially for the measurement of complicated structures, have become more and more significant. Different optical inspective methods, such as 3D profilometry, laser scanning and Coordinate-Measuring Machine (CMM), have been applied for 3D shape measurement. Among these methods, 3D profilometry seems to be the fastest and inexpensive method with considerably accurate result, and it has simple setup and full field measuring ability compared with other techniques. In this paper, a novel calibration method for 3D-profilometry will be introduced. In this method, a multiple-step calibration procedure is utilized and best-fit calibration curves are obtained to improve measurement accuracy. A recursive algorithm is used for data evaluation, along with calibration data.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tire-Snow Interaction Forces Using Metamodeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1511
High-fidelity finite element (FE) tire-snow interaction models have the advantage of better understanding the physics of the tire-snow system. They can be used to develop semi-analytical models for vehicle design as well as to design and interpret field test results. For off-terrain conditions, there is a high level of uncertainties inherent in the system. The FE models are computationally intensive even when uncertainties of the system are not taken into account. On the other hand, field tests of tire-snow interaction are very costly. In this paper, dynamic metamodels are established to interpret interaction forces from FE simulation and to predict those forces by using part of the FE data as training data and part as validation data. Two metamodels are built based upon the Krieging principle: one has principal component analysis (PCA) taken into account and the other does not.
Technical Paper

Radial-Ply vs. Bias-Ply Tires' Transmissibility

2007-04-16
2007-01-1513
Full nonlinear finite element radial-ply and bias-ply tire models are developed to investigate different structured tires' transmissibility phenomena. The reaction forces of the tire axles in time domain are recorded first when the tires encounter a bump (cleat), and then the FFT algorithm is applied to examine the dynamic response information in frequency domain. The results of the radial-ply vs. bias-ply tires' transmissibility are validated against previous studies and show reasonable agreement.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

2007-05-15
2007-01-2236
Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Re-Analysis Methodology for Vibration of Large-Scale Structures

2007-05-15
2007-01-2326
Finite element analysis is a well-established methodology in structural dynamics. However, optimization and/or probabilistic studies can be prohibitively expensive because they require repeated FE analyses of large models. Various reanalysis methods have been proposed in order to calculate efficiently the dynamic response of a structure after a baseline design has been modified, without recalculating the new response. The parametric reduced-order modeling (PROM) and the combined approximation (CA) methods are two re-analysis methods, which can handle large model parameter changes in a relatively efficient manner. Although both methods are promising by themselves, they can not handle large FE models with large numbers of DOF (e.g. 100,000) with a large number of design parameters (e.g. 50), which are common in practice. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the PROM and CA methods are first discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

Towards Shape Optimization of Radiator Cooling Tanks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0952
With increased demand for improvements in the efficiency and operation of all automotive engine components, including those in the engine cooling system, there is a need to develop a set of virtual tools that can aid in both the evaluation and design of automotive components. In the case of automotive radiators, improvements are needed in the overall pressure drop as well as the coolant flow homogeneity across all radiator tubes. The latter criterion is particularly important in the reduction of premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad hoc geometry changes with the goal of improving the performance of radiators, the coupling of CFD flow simulations with numerical shape optimization methods could assist in the design and testing of automotive heating and cooling components.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Engine Simulation of a Restricted FSAE Engine, Focusing on Restrictor Modelling

2006-12-05
2006-01-3651
One-dimensional (1D) engine simulation packages are limited in modeling flows through an adverse pressure gradient where boundary layer separation is more likely to occur, as in the case of the diffuser part of the restrictor. The restrictor modeling difficulty usually manifests itself as an engine model that consumes a lot of effort (both computational and from the user) in the modeling of the restrictor. The approach sought in this work was to provide a flow vs pressure drop dependency to the code such that it does not consume too much effort in the analysis of the restrictor. This approach is similar to that used for the valve flow, where a look up table is typically provided for determining the flow. Experimentally determined flow measurements on a thin-plate orifice, a short restrictor and a long restrictor are presented and discussed. The developed model gave excellent results in an acyclic steady-state simulation and is being integrated in the full engine model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the MADYMO Full FE Human Model in a Rear Impact Simulation of an IndyCar

2006-12-05
2006-01-3659
Computer simulation was used as a complement to crash and injury field data analysis and physical sled and barrier tests to investigate and predict the spinal injuries of a rear impact in an IndyCar. The model was expected to relate the spinal loads to the observed injuries, thereby predicting the probability and location of spinal fractures. The final goal is to help reduce the fracture risk by optimizing the seat and restraint system design and the driver's position using computer modeling and sled testing. MADYMO Full FE Human Body Model (HBM) was selected for use because of its full spinal structural details and its compatibility with the vehicle and restraint system models. However, the IndyCar application imposed unique challenges to the HBM. First, the driver position in a race car is very different from that in a typical passenger car.
Technical Paper

Application of Robust Engineering Methods to Improve ECU Software Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-1600
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Explicit Finite Element Road Load Calculations for Vehicle Durability Simulations

2006-03-01
2006-01-1980
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is evaluated during a vehicle's design and development. In addition, it is a basic expectation of consumers, who demand ever-increasing levels of quality and dependability. Automakers have developed corporate requirements for vehicle system durability which must be met before a products is delivered to the customer. To provide early predictions of vehicle durability, prior to the construction and testing of prototypes, it is necessary to predict the forces generated in the vehicle structure due to road inputs. This paper describes an application of the “virtual proving ground” approach for vehicle durability load prediction for a vehicle on proving ground road surfaces. Correlation of the results of such a series of simulations will be described, and the modeling and simulation requirements to provide accurate simulations will be presented.
Technical Paper

Improving the Reliability of Squeak & Rattle Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2539
The laboratory test method commonly known as “random vibration” is almost always used for Squeak & Rattle testing in today's automotive applications due to its obvious advantages: the convenience in simulating the real road input, the relatively low cost, and efficiency in obtaining the desired test results. Typically, Loudness N10 is used to evaluate the Squeak & Rattle (S&R) performance. However, due to the nature of random distribution of the excitation input, the repeatability of the loudness N10 measurements may vary significantly. This variation imposes a significant challenge when one is searching for a fine design improvement solution in minimizing S&R noise, such as a six-sigma study. This study intends to investigate (1) the range of the variations of random vibration control method as an excitation input with a given PSD, (2) the possibility of using an alternate control method (“time-history replication”) to produce the vibration of a given PSD for a S&R evaluation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Drivetrain Dynamic Performance Considering Uncertainty

2005-05-16
2005-01-2371
A vehicle drivetrain is designed to meet specific vehicle performance criteria which usually involve trade-offs among conflicting performance measures. This paper describes a methodology to optimize the drivetrain design including the axle ratio, transmission shift points and transmission shift ratios considering uncertainty. A complete vehicle dynamic model is developed using the bond graph method. The model includes the vehicle, engine, transmission, torque converter, driveline, and transmission controller. An equivalent MATLAB Simulink model is also developed in order to carry out the nonlinear dynamic analysis efficiently. A deterministic optimization is first performed to determine the optimum design in terms of fuel economy, without considering variations or uncertainties. Subsequently, a Reliability-Based Design Optimization is carried out to find the optimum design in the presence of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Improving Cam Phaser Performance Using Robust Engineering Techniques

2005-10-24
2005-01-3903
This paper describes a robust engineering DOE (design of experiment) completed by hydraulic simulation of a Variable Cam Phaser System based on an L4 IC engine. The robust engineering study focused on the high temperature and low speed portions of overall engine operating conditions where the cam phase rates are slow and oscillation is high. The analysis included a preliminary DOE with multiple noise variables used as the control factors in order to quantify and compound the factors into just two noise levels; best and worst conditions. Following the noise DOE, a larger DOE study was completed with 16 control variables including phaser, oil control valve and various engine parameters. It was run at 3 engine rpm (signal levels), 2 noise levels, and was analyzed for 3 responses (advancing rate, retarding rate, and oscillation amplitude while holding an intermediate position). These DOE experiments determined potential gains for each design proposal.
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