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Technical Paper

Robust Compressor Model for AC System Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0596
Simple component models are advantageous when simulating vehicle AC systems so that overall model complexity and computation time can be minimized. These models must be robust enough to avoid instability in the iteration method used for determining the AC system operating or “balance” point. Simplicity and stability are especially important when the AC system model is coupled with a vehicle interior model for studies of transient performance because these are more computationally intensive. This paper presents a semi-empirical modeling method for compressors based on dimensionless parameters. Application to some sample compressor data is illustrated. The model equations are simple to employ and will not introduce significant stability problems when used as part of a system simulation.
Technical Paper

Relative Contributions of Intake and Exhaust Tuning on SI Engine Breathing - A Computational Study

2007-04-16
2007-01-0492
This study examines the contributions and interactions of intake and exhaust tuning on a 4-stroke single-cylinder engine for various engine speeds and valve timings. The parametric study was performed using a 1-D engine simulation model, the combustion sub-model of which was calibrated based on experimental pressure data. Mechanisms by which tuning changes the volumetric efficiency of an engine were studied. Simulation results are compared with established empirical correlations which predict pipe lengths for maximum volumetric efficiency. It was found that intake tuning has a more dominant role in the breathing capability of the engine compared to exhaust tuning and that both are independent from each other. Valve timing was found to have no effect on intake tuning characteristics but to affect exhaust tuning.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-04-16
2007-01-1251
An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

2007-04-16
2007-01-1249
Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration Method for Digital 3D Profilometry System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1380
Recently the use of digital 3D profilometry in the automotive industries has become increasingly popular. The effective techniques for 3D shape measurement, especially for the measurement of complicated structures, have become more and more significant. Different optical inspective methods, such as 3D profilometry, laser scanning and Coordinate-Measuring Machine (CMM), have been applied for 3D shape measurement. Among these methods, 3D profilometry seems to be the fastest and inexpensive method with considerably accurate result, and it has simple setup and full field measuring ability compared with other techniques. In this paper, a novel calibration method for 3D-profilometry will be introduced. In this method, a multiple-step calibration procedure is utilized and best-fit calibration curves are obtained to improve measurement accuracy. A recursive algorithm is used for data evaluation, along with calibration data.
Technical Paper

Sunroof Buffeting Suppression Using a Dividing Bar

2007-04-16
2007-01-1552
This paper presents the results of CFD study on sunroof buffeting suppression using a dividing bar. The role of a dividing bar in side window buffeting case was illustrated in a previous study [8]. For the baseline model of the selected vehicle in this study, a very high level of sunroof buffeting, 133dB, has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be significantly reduced if a dividing bar is installed at the sunroof. A further optimization study on the dividing bar demonstrates that the peak buffeting level can be reduced to 123dB for the selected vehicle if the dividing bar is installed at its optimal location, 65% of the total length from the front edge of the sunroof. The peak buffeting level can be further reduced to 100dB if the dividing bar takes its optimal width 80mm, 15% of the total length of the sunroof for this vehicle, while staying at its optimal location.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tire-Snow Interaction Forces Using Metamodeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1511
High-fidelity finite element (FE) tire-snow interaction models have the advantage of better understanding the physics of the tire-snow system. They can be used to develop semi-analytical models for vehicle design as well as to design and interpret field test results. For off-terrain conditions, there is a high level of uncertainties inherent in the system. The FE models are computationally intensive even when uncertainties of the system are not taken into account. On the other hand, field tests of tire-snow interaction are very costly. In this paper, dynamic metamodels are established to interpret interaction forces from FE simulation and to predict those forces by using part of the FE data as training data and part as validation data. Two metamodels are built based upon the Krieging principle: one has principal component analysis (PCA) taken into account and the other does not.
Technical Paper

Radial-Ply vs. Bias-Ply Tires' Transmissibility

2007-04-16
2007-01-1513
Full nonlinear finite element radial-ply and bias-ply tire models are developed to investigate different structured tires' transmissibility phenomena. The reaction forces of the tire axles in time domain are recorded first when the tires encounter a bump (cleat), and then the FFT algorithm is applied to examine the dynamic response information in frequency domain. The results of the radial-ply vs. bias-ply tires' transmissibility are validated against previous studies and show reasonable agreement.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

2007-05-15
2007-01-2236
Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Re-Analysis Methodology for Vibration of Large-Scale Structures

2007-05-15
2007-01-2326
Finite element analysis is a well-established methodology in structural dynamics. However, optimization and/or probabilistic studies can be prohibitively expensive because they require repeated FE analyses of large models. Various reanalysis methods have been proposed in order to calculate efficiently the dynamic response of a structure after a baseline design has been modified, without recalculating the new response. The parametric reduced-order modeling (PROM) and the combined approximation (CA) methods are two re-analysis methods, which can handle large model parameter changes in a relatively efficient manner. Although both methods are promising by themselves, they can not handle large FE models with large numbers of DOF (e.g. 100,000) with a large number of design parameters (e.g. 50), which are common in practice. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the PROM and CA methods are first discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Engine Internal Dynamic Force Identification and the Combination with Engine Structural and Vibro-Acoustic Transfer Information

2001-04-30
2001-01-1596
The vibration-generating mechanisms inside an engine are highly non-linear (combustion, valve operation, hydraulic bearing behavior, etc.). However, the engine structure, under the influence of these vibration-generating mechanisms, responds in a highly linear way. For the development and optimization of the engine structure for noise and vibration it is beneficial to use fast and ‘simple’ linear models, like linear FE-models, measured modal models or measured FRF-models. All these models allow a qualitative assessment of variants without excitation information. But, for true optimization, internal excitation spectra are needed in order to avoid that effort is spent to optimize non-critical system properties. Unfortunately, these internal excitation spectra are difficult to measure. Direct measurement of combustion pressure is still feasible, but crank-bearing forces, piston guidance forces etc. can only be identified indirectly.
Technical Paper

Oxygenates screening for AdvancedPetroleum-Based Diesel Fuels: Part 2. The Effect of Oxygenate Blending Compounds on Exhaust Emissions

2001-09-24
2001-01-3632
Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel has shown the potential for reducing particulate (PM) emissions in the exhaust. The objective of this study was to select the most promising oxygenate compounds as blending components in diesel fuel for advanced engine testing. A fuel matrix was designed to consider the effect of molecular structure and boiling point on the ability of oxygenates to reduce engine-out exhaust emissions from a modern diesel engine. Nine test fuels including a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low-aromatic hydrocracked base fuel and 8 oxygenate-base fuel blends were utilized. All oxygenated fuels were formulated to contain 7% wt. of oxygen. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. The base fuel was evaluated in four speed-load modes and oxygenated blends only in one mode. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

The New DaimlerChrysler 5.7L Hemi V-8 Engine: Design and Advanced Simulation Techniques

2002-10-21
2002-01-2816
For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation will launch a totally new 5.7L V-8 engine for applications of the Dodge Ram pick-up truck. The new engine was created largely within a digital environment using the latest computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques and tools. Utilizing a co-located team of design engineers, designers, and CAE engineers enabled the simulations to impact the design from program inception to the assembly line, saving program time and investment. This paper describes the successful merging of design and advanced analysis techniques by highlighting examples throughout the new HEMI® program. Case studies include issues in the areas of structural optimization, engine loading, lubrication circuit, cooling circuit, and manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Driver out-of-position injuries mitigation and advanced restraint features development

2001-06-04
2001-06-0069
Airbag-related out-of-position (OOP) injuries in automotive crash accident have drawn great attention by public in recent years. In the interim-final rule of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards that NHTSA issued in May 2000, OOP static test becomes a mandatory requirement of new regulation and will be phased in starting from year 2003. Due to the complexities and constraints of vehicle design, such as extreme vehicle styling and packaging as well as multiple safety requirements, it is a great challenge for both restraint safety suppliers and automobile manufacturers work together to come up with proper designs to meet requirements of new regulation and provide additional protection for both in-position and OOP occupants at various vehicle crash scenarios. In this paper, the technique of developing advanced restraint system and mitigating the OOP injuries is described.
Technical Paper

Towards Shape Optimization of Radiator Cooling Tanks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0952
With increased demand for improvements in the efficiency and operation of all automotive engine components, including those in the engine cooling system, there is a need to develop a set of virtual tools that can aid in both the evaluation and design of automotive components. In the case of automotive radiators, improvements are needed in the overall pressure drop as well as the coolant flow homogeneity across all radiator tubes. The latter criterion is particularly important in the reduction of premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad hoc geometry changes with the goal of improving the performance of radiators, the coupling of CFD flow simulations with numerical shape optimization methods could assist in the design and testing of automotive heating and cooling components.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Large Hydraulic Hose Deflections

2002-10-06
2002-01-2589
A modeling methodology is being developed to aid in routing and predicting movement of brake hoses with the objective of having an adequate representation in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system for virtual prototyping. Once mount points and orientations have been specified,material properties and length determine the path of the hose. Data, collected on a straight and deflected hose at several points along the length of the hose, were compared to an ADAMS simulation. Problems that were encountered in metrology and data transfer are discussed along with their potential impact on the modeling accuracy.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
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