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Technical Paper

Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

2011-06-13
2011-38-0018
Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations.
Technical Paper

Further Evaluation of Scaling Methods for Rotorcraft Icing

2011-06-13
2011-38-0083
The paper will present experimental results from two recent icing tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The first test, conducted in February 2009, was to evaluate the current recommended scaling methods for fixed wing on representative rotor airfoils at fixed angle of attack. For this test, scaling was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity determined by constant Weber number and water film Weber number. Models were un-swept NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 91.4 cm and scale model had a chord of 35.6 cm. Reference tests were conducted with velocity of 100 kt (52 m/s), droplet medium volume diameter (MVD) 195 μm, and stagnation-point freezing fractions of 0.3 and 0.5 at angle of attack of 5° and 7°. It was shown that good ice shape scaling was achieved with constant Weber number for NACA 0012 airfoils with angle of attack up to 7°.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Icing Scaling on Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil Models

2011-06-13
2011-38-0081
Icing scaling tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel were performed on swept wing models using existing recommended scaling methods that were originally developed for straight wing. Some needed modifications on the stagnation-point local collection efficiency (i.e., Β₀) calculation and the corresponding convective heat transfer coefficient for swept NACA 0012 airfoil models have been studied and reported in 2009, and the correlations will be used in the current study. The reference tests used a 91.4-cm chord, 152.4-cm span, adjustable sweep airfoil model of NACA 0012 profile at velocities of 100 and 150 knots and MVD of 44 and 93 μm. Scale-to-reference model size ratio was 1:2.4. All tests were conducted at 0° angle of attach (AoA) and 45° sweep angle. Ice shape comparison results were presented for stagnation-point freezing fractions in the range of 0.4 to 1.0.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Ice Accretion Formation on a Swept Wing at SLD Conditions

2007-09-24
2007-01-3345
An experiment was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center to study the effect of sweep angle and temperature on the formation of ice accretions on a NACA 0012 swept wing at SLD conditions. From a baseline Appendix-C condition with a MVD of 20m the drop size was changed to 110 and 200m for the SLD cases. Casting data, ice shape tracings, time-sequence and photographic data were obtained. Time-sequence photography was taken during each run to capture in real time the formation of the ice accretion. Measurements of the critical distance were obtained.
Technical Paper

The Water Film Weber Number in Glaze Icing Scaling

2007-09-24
2007-01-3295
Surface water film dynamics is recognized as playing an important role in the glaze ice accretion process. The solution, in general scaling problems, requires the match of all the relevant non-dimensional parameters to take place individually. However, in water film dynamics similarity, we encounter that is not possible for both Reynolds and Weber numbers to be matched simultaneously, and the strict individual parameter similarity condition has to be relaxed and combination of parameters accepted as a reasonable compromise. In this paper, a film Weber number will be defined and then proposed as a similarity parameter along with the non-dimensional film thickness as well as others that have been long recognized as well established, to form the set of equations that determine the scaled variables in terms of the reference ones.
Technical Paper

Review of Role of Icing Feathers in Ice Accretion Formation

2007-09-24
2007-01-3294
This paper presents a review of our current experimental and theoretical understanding of icing feathers and the role that they play in the formation of ice accretions. It covers the following areas: a short review of past research work related to icing feathers; a discussion of the physical characteristics and terminology used in describing icing feathers; the presence of feathers on ice accretions formed in unswept airfoils, especially at SLD conditions; the role that icing feathers play in the formation of ice accretion shapes on swept wings; the formation of icing feathers from roughness elements; theoretical considerations regarding feather formation, feather interaction to form complex icing structures, the role of film dynamics in the formation of roughness elements and the formation of feathers. Hypotheses related to feather formation and feather growth are discussed.
Technical Paper

Overview of Icing Physics Relevant to Scaling

2003-06-16
2003-01-2130
An understanding of icing physics is required for the development of both scaling methods and ice-accretion prediction codes. This paper gives an overview of our present understanding of the important physical processes and the associated similarity parameters that determine the shape of Appendix C ice accretions. For many years it has been recognized that ice accretion processes depend on flow effects over the model, on droplet trajectories, on the rate of water collection and time of exposure, and, for glaze ice, on a heat balance. For scaling applications, equations describing these events have been based on analyses at the stagnation line of the model and have resulted in the identification of several non-dimensional similarity parameters. The parameters include the modified inertia parameter of the water drop, the accumulation parameter and the freezing fraction. Other parameters dealing with the leading-edge heat balance have also been used for convenience.
Journal Article

Development of a Coupled Air and Particle Thermal Model for Engine Icing Test Facilities

2015-06-15
2015-01-2155
This paper describes a numerical model that simulates the thermal interaction between ice particles, water droplets, and the flowing air applicable during icing wind tunnel tests where there is significant phase-change of the cloud. It has been previously observed that test conditions, most notably temperature and humidity, change when the icing cloud is activated. It is hypothesized that the ice particles and water droplets thermally interact with the flowing air causing the air temperature and humidity to change by the time it reaches the test section. Unlike previous models where the air and particles are uncoupled, this model attempts to explain the observed changes in test conditions by coupling the conservation of mass and energy equations. The model is compared to measurements taken during wind tunnel tests simulating ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines.
Technical Paper

Ice Accretion Measurements on an Airfoil and Wedge in Mixed-Phase Conditions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2116
This paper presents measurements of ice accretion shape and surface temperature from ice-crystal icing experiments conducted jointly by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. The data comes from experiments performed at NRC's Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac) in 2012. The measurements are intended to help develop models of the ice-crystal icing phenomenon associated with engine ice-crystal icing. Ice accretion tests were conducted using two different airfoil models (a NACA 0012 and wedge) at different velocities, temperatures, and pressures although only a limited set of permutations were tested. The wedge airfoil had several tests during which its surface was actively cooled. The ice accretion measurements included leading-edge thickness for both airfoils. The wedge and one case from the NACA 0012 model also included 2D cross-section profile shapes.
Technical Paper

Recent Advances in the LEWICE Icing Model

2015-06-15
2015-01-2094
This paper will describe two recent modifications to the LEWICE software. The version described is under development and not ready for release. First, a capability for modeling ice crystals and mixed phase icing has been modified based on recent experimental data. Modifications have been made to the ice particle bouncing and erosion model. This capability has been added as part of a larger effort to model ice crystal ingestion in aircraft engines. Comparisons have been made to ice crystal ice accretions performed in the NRC Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). Second, modifications were made to the runback model based on data and observations from thermal scaling tests performed in the NRC Altitude Icing Tunnel. The runback model was modified to match film models used in the open literature. An empirical water shedding was also implemented. Comparisons were made to thermal deicing data taken at the NRC Altitude Icing Tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Reevaluation of Appendix C Ice Roughness Using Laser Scanning

2015-06-15
2015-01-2098
Many studies have been performed to quantify the formation and evolution of roughness on ice shapes created in Appendix C icing conditions, which exhibits supercooled liquid droplets ranging from 1-50 µm. For example Anderson and Shin (1997), Anderson et al. (1998), and Shin (1994) represent early studies of ice roughness during short-duration icing events measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In the historical literature, image analysis techniques were employed to characterize the roughness. Using multiple images of the roughness elements, these studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness elements. While the image analysis approach enabled many insights into icing physics, recent improvements in laser scanning approaches have revolutionized the process of ice accretion shape characterization.
Technical Paper

Total Temperature Measurements in Icing Cloud Flows Using a Rearward Facing Probe

2019-06-10
2019-01-1923
This paper reports on temperature and humidity measurements from a series of ice-crystal icing tunnel experiments conducted in June 2018 at the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were fundamental in nature and were aimed at investigating the icing processes on a two-dimensional NACA0012 airfoil subjected to artificially generated icing clouds. Prior to the tests on the airfoil, a suite of instruments, including total temperature and humidity probes, were used to characterize the thermodynamic flow and icing cloud conditions of the facility. Two different total temperature probes were used in these tests which included a custom designed rearward facing probe and a commercial self-heating total temperature probe. The rearward facing probe, the main total temperature probe, is being designed to reduce and mitigate the contaminating effects of icing and ingestion of ice crystals and water droplets at the probe’s inlet.
Technical Paper

Ice-Crystal Icing Accretion Studies at the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

2019-06-10
2019-01-1921
This paper describes an ice-crystal icing experiment conducted at the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory during June 2018. This test produced ice shape data on an airfoil for different test conditions similar to those inside the compressor region of a turbo-fan jet engine. Mixed-phase icing conditions were generated by partially freezing out a water spray using the relative humidity of flow as the primary parameter to control freeze-out. The paper presents the ice shape data and associated conditions which include pressure, velocity, temperature, humidity, total water content, melt ratio, and particle size distribution. The test featured a new instrument traversing system which allowed surveys of the flow and cloud. The purpose of this work was to provide experimental ice shape data and associated conditions to help develop and validate ice-crystal icing accretion models.
Technical Paper

Scaling Evaluation of Ice-Crystal Icing on a Modern Turbofan Engine in PSL Using the COMDES-MELT Code

2019-06-10
2019-01-1920
This paper presents preliminary ice-crystal icing (ICI) altitude scaling evaluation results of a Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) that was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) during January of 2018. This engine geometry features a hidden core design to keep the core less exposed. The engine was fitted with internal video cameras to observe various ice buildup processes at multiple selected locations within the engine core flow path covering the fan stator, the splitter-lip/shroud/strut, and the high pressure compressor (HPC) variable inlet guide vane (IGV) regions. The potential ice accretion risk was pre-determined to occur by using NASA’s in-house 1D Engine Icing Risk assessment code, COMDES-MELT. The code was successful in predicting the risk of ice accretion in adiabatic regions like the fan-stator of the HURE at specific engine operating points.
Technical Paper

Influence of Freestream Temperature on Ice Accretion Roughness

2019-06-10
2019-01-1993
The influence of freestream static temperature on roughness temporal evolution and spatial variation was investigated in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center. A 53.34 cm (21-in.) NACA 0012 airfoil model and a 152.4 cm (60-in.) HAARP-II business jet airfoil model were exposed to Appendix C clouds for fixed exposure times and thus fixed ice accumulation parameter. For the base conditions, the static temperature was varied to produce different stagnation point freezing fractions. The resulting ice shapes were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm system and analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger. The ice accretion prediction program LEWICE was further used to aid in interrogations of the ice accretion point clouds by using the predicted surface variations of local collection efficiency.
Technical Paper

Measured Interfacial Residual Strains Produced by In-Flight Ice

2019-06-10
2019-01-1998
The formation of ice on aircraft is a highly dynamic process during which ice will expand and contract upon freezing and undergoing changes in temperature. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations were performed investigating the stress/strain response of an idealized ice sample bonded to an acrylic substrate subjected to a uniform temperature change. The FEA predictions were used to guide the placement of strain gages on custom-built acrylic and aluminum specimens. Tee rosettes were placed in two configurations adjacent to thermocouple sensors. The specimens were then placed in icing conditions such that ice was grown on top of the specimen. It was hypothesized that the ice would expand on freezing and contract as the temperature of the interface returned to the equilibrium conditions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of SLD Drop Size Distributions on Ice Accretion in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

2019-06-10
2019-01-2022
An ice shape database has been created to document ice accretions on a 21-inch chord NACA0012 model and a 72-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model resulting from an exposure to a Supercooled Large Drop (SLD) icing cloud with a bimodal drop size distribution. The ice shapes created were documented with photographs, laser scanned surface measurements over a section of the model span, and measurement of the ice mass over the same section of each accretion. The icing conditions used in the test matrix were based upon previously used conditions on the same models but with an alternate approach to evaluation of drop distribution effects. Ice shapes resulting from the bimodal distribution as well as from equivalent monomodal drop size distributions were obtained and compared.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Experimental Ice Accretion Data and Assessment of a Thermodynamic Model during Ice Crystal Icing

2019-06-10
2019-01-2016
This paper analyzes ice crystal icing accretion data and evaluates a thermodynamic ice crystal icing model, which has been previously presented, to describe the possible mechanisms of icing within the core of a turbofan jet engine. The model functions between two distinct ice accretions based on a surface energy balance: freeze-dominated icing and melt-dominated icing. Freeze-dominated icing occurs when liquid water (from melted ice crystals) freezes and accretes on a surface along with the existing ice of the impinging water and ice mass. This freeze-dominated icing is characterized as having strong adhesion to the surface. The amount of ice accretion is partially dictated by a freeze fraction, which is the fraction of impinging liquid water that freezes. Melt-dominated icing occurs as unmelted ice on a surface accumulates. This melt-dominated icing is characterized by weakly bonded surface adhesion.
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