Refine Your Search


Search Results

Viewing 1 to 17 of 17
Technical Paper

Generator Voltage Regulation Through Current Control in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A novel approach to control the output voltage of the generator on a hybrid electric vehicle is proposed in this paper. In addition to the voltage control, for safety reason, it is desirable to control the current of the generator when the machine is running. In order to control the current, the reference voltage is translated to reference current by an estimator. Then current convergence is ensured by controlling the excitation voltage. Thus the over-current is prevented in the system. The rate of convergence of the voltage tracking is discussed. Robustness of the control algorithm against parameter variation is also analyzed and compared with conventional approach. Simulation results show that the safety objective is achieved without sacrificing output performance of the generator.
Technical Paper

Charging Strategy Studies for PHEV Batteries based on Power Loss Model

This paper describes a new method to increase the efficiency of the battery charging process, η, which is defined as the ratio of the energy accumulated in the battery over the actual energy supplied to it. Through several simulation results, it has been found that such efficiency is a function of the current profile applied to the battery during the charging process; hence, plots describing the energy loss in the battery, time taken to achieve a desired level of charge, and power needed as a function of the charging current, are shown. In order to find the optimal charging current profile, the mathematical model of the energy loss in the battery is developed and the problem of finding the optimal current profile is formulated as an Optimal Control problem. A model based on a Lithium-Ion Battery commercially available for PHEV is used as the plant to be controlled.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow on Helmholtz Resonator Acoustics: A Three-Dimensional Computational Study vs. Experiments

The effectiveness of the Helmholtz resonator as a narrow band acoustic attenuator, particularly at low frequencies, makes it a highly desirable component in a wide variety of applications, including engine breathing systems. The present study investigates the influence of mean flow grazing over the neck of such a configuration on its acoustic performance both computationally and experimentally. Three-dimensional unsteady, turbulent, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by using the Pressure-Implicit-Splitting-of-Operators algorithm in STAR-CD to determine the time-dependent flow field. The introduction of mean flow in the main duct is shown to reduce the peak transmission loss and shift the fundamental resonance frequency to a higher value.
Technical Paper

Validation and Enhancement of a Heavy Truck Simulation Model with an Electronic Stability Control Model

Validation was performed on an existing heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model with roll stability control (RSC). The first stage in this validation was to compare the response of the simulated tractor to that of the experimental tractor. By looking at the steady-state gains of the tractor, adjustments were made to the model to more closely match the experimental results. These adjustments included suspension and steering compliances, as well as auxiliary roll moment modifications. Once the validation of the truck tractor was completed for the current configuration, the existing 53-foot box trailer model was added to the vehicle model. The next stage in experimental validation for the current tractor-trailer model was to incorporate suspension compliances and modify the auxiliary roll stiffness to more closely model the experimental response of the vehicle. The final validation stage was to implement some minor modifications to the existing RSC model.
Journal Article

Integration of a Torsional Stiffness Model into an Existing Heavy Truck Vehicle Dynamics Model

Torsional stiffness properties were developed for both a 53-foot box trailer and a 28-foot flatbed control trailer based on experimental measurements. In order to study the effect of torsional stiffness on the dynamics of a heavy truck vehicle dynamics computer model, static maneuvers were conducted comparing different torsional stiffness values to the original rigid vehicle model. Stiffness properties were first developed for a truck tractor model. It was found that the incorporation of a torsional stiffness model had only a minor effect on the overall tractor response for steady-state maneuvers up to 0.4 g lateral acceleration. The effect of torsional stiffness was also studied for the trailer portion of the existing model.
Technical Paper

Simulation Results from a Model of a Tractor Trailer Vehicle Equipped with Roll Stability Control

In 2007, a software model of a Roll Stability Control (RSC) system was developed based on test data for a Volvo tractor at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). This model was designed to simulate the RSC performance of a commercially available Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system. The RSC model was developed in Simulink and integrated with the available braking model (TruckSim) for the truck. The Simulink models were run in parallel with the vehicle dynamics model of a truck in TruckSim. The complete vehicle model including the RSC system model is used to simulate the behavior of the actual truck and determine the capability of the RSC system in preventing rollovers under different conditions. Several simulations were performed to study the behavior of the model developed and to compare its performance with that of an actual test vehicle equipped with RSC.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Assess Vehicle Stability and Controllability in Open and Closed-Loop Maneuvers

This paper describes a method to evaluate vehicle stability and controllability when the vehicle operates in the nonlinear range of lateral dynamics. The method is applied to open-loop steering maneuvers as well as closed-loop path-following maneuvers. Although path-following maneuvers are more representative of real world driving intent, they are usually considered inappropriate for objective assessment because of repeatability and accuracy issues. The automated test driver (ATD) can perform path-following maneuvers accurately and with good repeatability. This paper discusses the usefulness of application of the automated test drivers and path-following maneuvers. The dynamic mode of instability is not directly obtained from measurable outputs such as yawrate and lateral acceleration as in open-loop maneuvers. A few metrics are defined to quantify deviation from desired or ideal behavior in terms of observed “unexpected” lateral force and moment.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning Optimal Control of an Active Suspension

The objective of this paper is to develop a self-tuning optimal control of an active suspension. An active suspension composed of an identifier and a controller is proposed in this paper. Although control strategies on active (or semi-active) suspensions have been investigated during the past few decades, some problems are not well understood yet. One of them arising from the ride control of an active suspension is that when the weight and the moments of inertia of the sprung mass are varied, the feedback gains of the controller should vary with the variation of parameters accordingly. Therefore, the identifier is proposed before the controller is designed. In the real situations, the parameter variation may occur when loadings on vehicles vary - either from passengers or payloads, especially, in the case of loading on a truck. An identification structure using parallel model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is proposed to identify the true parameters.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Off-Line of Action Contact at the Tips of Gear Teeth

A mathematical basis for predicting loaded off-line of action contact at the tips of undermodified gear teeth is discussed. Two methods of solving the contact problem, using a modified simplex algorithm, are used to predict the load distribution. The methods differ in the compliance matrix formulation and the way they search for contact. The first method uses a tapered plate model and the second method uses a finite element model. The effects of off-line of action contact on load sharing, effective contact ratio and motion curves are shown.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Intake-Generated Flow Fields in I.C. Engines Using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV)

Flow fields generated during the intake stroke of a 4-stroke I.C. engine are studied experimentally using water analog simulation. The fluid is seeded by small flow tracer particles and imaged by two digital cameras at BDC. Using a 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique recently developed, the 3-D motion of these flow tracers is determined in a completely automated way using sophisticated image processing and PTV algorithms. The resulting 3-D velocity fields are ensemble averaged over a large number of successive cycles to determine the mean characteristics of the flow field as well as to estimate the turbulent fluctuations. This novel technique was applied to three different cylinder head configurations. Each configuration was run for conditions simulating idle operation two different ways: first with both inlet ports open and second with only the primary port open.
Technical Paper

Estimate of IC Engine Torque from Measurement of Crankshaft Angular Position

Crankshaft angular position measurements are fundamental to all modern automotive engines. These measurements are required to control fuel injection timing as well as ignition timing. However, many other functions can be performed from such measurements through the use of advanced signal processing. These additional functions are essentially diagnostic in nature although there is potential for substitution of primary fuel and ignition control functions. This paper illustrates the application of crankshaft angular position measurement to the estimation of individual cylinder indicated and/or brake torque in IC engines from measurement of crankshaft position/velocity.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Mixing in a Natural Gas Powered Engine by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorcence

There is currently a large effort in industry to make natural gas a viable alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. While the use of natural gas offers several advantages such as reduced emissions and potentially higher efficiency, it also has some inherent difficulties. Among these is the challenge of producing a consistently homogeneous air/fuel mixture while retaining the advantages which accompany modern, multi-point, fuel injection systems. The purpose of the research described here is to investigate the in-cylinder mixture formation process in a port injected natural gas fueled engine. Planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to produce qualitative air fuel ratio maps in the engine cylinder, in selected planes, throughout the intake and compression strokes. The process consists of impinging a sheet of ultraviolet laser light on various planes parallel to, and normal to, the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injection Timing on In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution in a Natural Gas Powered Engine

One obstacle hindering the use of port fuel injection in natural gas engines is poor idle performance due to incomplete mixing of the cylinder charge prior to ignition. Fuel injection timing has a strong influence on the mixing process. The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of fuel injection timing on in-cylinder fuel distribution. Equivalence ratio maps have been acquired by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence in an optical engine with a production cylinder head. Experimental results have been used to determine the injection timing which produces the most uniform fuel distribution for the given engine.
Technical Paper

Addressing Drivability in an Extended Range Electric Vehicle Running an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS)

The EcoCAR Challenge team at The Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 50 miles all-electric range via a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, with range extension and limited parallel operation supplied by a 1.8 L dedicated E85 engine. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This vehicle design is implemented in a GM crossover utility vehicle as part of the EcoCAR Challenge. This paper explains the implementation of the vehicle's control strategy in order to maintain high efficiency and improve drivability. The vehicle control strategy employs both distinct operating modes and an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) to find the most efficient operating point. The ECMS strategy does an online search for the most efficient torque split in order to meet the driver's command.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Using Combined Hardening Model

The main objective of this paper is to simulate the springback using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by an inverse method. Three-point bending test is conducted on 6022-T4 aluminum sheet. Punch stroke, punch load, bending strain and bending angle are measured directly during the tests. Bending moments are then computed from these measured data. Bending moments are also calculated based on a constitutive model. Material parameters are identified by minimizing the normalized error between two bending moments. Micro genetic algorithm is used in the optimization procedure. Stress-strain curves is generated with the material parameters found in this way, which can be used with other plastic models. ABAQUS/Standard 5.8, which has the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate draw-bend of 6022-T4 series aluminum sheet. Absolute springback angles are predicted very accurately.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) in Analyzing Head Injuries in Pedestrian Crashes

Objectives. Examination of head injuries in the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) indicates that many pedestrian head injuries are induced by a combination of head translation and rotation. The Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) is a computer algorithm that calculates both translational and rotational motion parameters relatable head injury. The objective of this study is to examine how effectively HIC and three SIMon correlates predict the presence of either their associated head injury or any serious head injury in pedestrian collisions. Methods. Ten reconstructions of actual pedestrian crashes documented by the PCDS were conducted using a combination of MADYMO simulations and experimental headform impacts. Linear accelerations of the head corresponding to a nine-accelerometer array were calculated within the MADYMO model's head simulation.
Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Stability Following a Steer Axle Tire Blowout at Speed and Comparison to Computer Simulation Models

This paper documents the vehicle response of a tractor-semitrailer following a sudden air loss (Blowout) in a steer axle tire while traveling at highway speeds. The study seeks to compare full-scale test data to predicted response from detailed heavy truck computer vehicle dynamics simulation models. Full-scale testing of a tractor-semitrailer experiencing a sudden failure of a steer axle tire was conducted. Vehicle handling parameters were recorded by on-board computers leading up to and immediately following the sudden air loss. Inertial parameters (roll, yaw, pitch, and accelerations) were measured and recorded for the tractor and semitrailer, along with lateral and longitudinal speeds. Steering wheel angle was also recorded. These data are presented and also compared to the results of computer simulation models. The first simulation model, SImulation MOdel Non-linear (SIMON), is a vehicle dynamic simulation model within the Human Vehicle Environment (HVE) software environment.