Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0139
The automotive industry is striving to adopt model-based engine design and optimization procedures to reduce development time and costs. In this scenario, first-principles gas dynamic models predicting the mass, energy and momentum transport in the engine air path system with high accuracy and low computation effort are extremely important today for performance prediction, optimization and cylinder charge estimation and control. This paper presents a comparative study of two different modeling approaches to predict the one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow in the engine air path system. The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Traffic, Road and Weather Information on PHEV Energy Management

2011-09-11
2011-24-0162
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
Technical Paper

Multiple Rear-end Collisions in Freeway Traffic, Their Causes and Their Avoidance

1970-02-01
700085
The sensitivity factor, λ, of stimulus-response car following equations was computed, based on response times, τ, obtained from aerial survey data. Vehicles of a platoon are investigated as they approach, proceed through, and leave behind a kinematic disturbance, and an inherent local and asymptotic instability is discovered. Aerial survey data is used in a numerical example to demonstrate how multiple rear-end collisions can be triggered by one vehicle. A driver aid system, informing drivers about the differential velocity between lead and following vehicles, could improve stability, although the final answer appears to lie in automated or semi-automated longitudinal control systems.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

2019-04-02
2019-01-0129
The challenges posed by connected and autonomous vehicles fall beyond the scope of current version of ISO 26262. According to the current functional safety standard, controllability, largely affected by human intervention, is a large contributor to the definition of the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). Since the driver involvement in CAVs will decrease in future, this gives no clear definition for future functional safety design. On the other hand, CAVs bring additional capabilities such as advance sensors, telematics-based connectivity etc. which can be used to devise efficient approaches to address functional safety (FuSa) challenges. The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc.
Technical Paper

Effects of Thermal and Auxiliary Dynamics on a Fuel Cell Based Range Extender

2018-04-03
2018-01-1311
Batteries are useful in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) to fulfill transient demands and for regenerative braking. Efficient energy management strategies paired with optimal powertrain design further improves the efficiency. In this paper, a new methodology to simultaneously size the propulsive elements and optimize the power-split strategy of a Range Extended Battery Electric Vehicle (REBEV), using a Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), is proposed and preliminary studies on the effects of the driving mission profile and the auxiliary power loads on the sizing and optimal performance of the powertrain design are carried out. Dynamic Programming is used to compute the optimal energy management strategy for a given driving mission profile, providing a global optimal solution.
Technical Paper

Development of the Design of a Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2016-04-05
2016-01-1257
The design of a performance hybrid electric vehicle includes a wide range of architecture possibilities. A large part of the design process is identifying reasonable vehicle architectures and vehicle performance capabilities. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team designed a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed with a 44-mile all-electric range. It also features an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak electric machine. This report details the design and modeling process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The process included researching the customer needs of the vehicle, determining team design goals, initial modeling, and selecting a vehicle architecture.
Technical Paper

Model and Controls Development of a Post-Transmission PHEV for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2016-04-05
2016-01-1252
The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is designing a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed to have a 44-mile all-electric range. The vehicle is to consist of an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak-power electric machine. This report details the model and controls development process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the EcoCAR 3 competition. The focus of the paper will be on overall development of a vehicle model, initial simulation results, and supervisory controls development. Finally, initial energy consumption results from the model and future improvements will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Kinematics Response of the PMHS Brain to Rotational Loading of the Head: Development of Experimental Methods and Analysis of Preliminary Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-0547
Experimentally derived brain response envelopes are needed to evaluate and validate existing finite element (FE) head models. Motion of the brain relative to the skull during rotational input was measured using high-speed biplane x-ray. To generate repeatable, reproducible, and scalable data, methods were developed to reduce experimental variance. An “extreme-energy” device was developed to provide a controlled input that is unaffected by specimen characteristics. Additionally, a stereotactic frame was used to deploy radiopaque markers at specific, pre-determined locations within the brain. One post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) head specimen was subjected to repeat tests of a half-sine rotational speed pulse in the sagittal plane. The desired pulse had a peak angular speed of 40 rad/s and duration of 30 ms. Relative motion of the brain was quantified using radiopaque targets and high-speed biplane x-ray. Frontal and occipital intracranial pressure (ICP) were also measured.
Technical Paper

Application of Scaled Deflection Injury Criteria to Two Small, Fragile Females in Side Impact Motor Vehicle Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0542
Thoracic injury criteria have been previously developed to predict thoracic injury for vehicle occupants as a function of biomechanical response. Historically, biomechanical testing of post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) for injury criteria development has primarily been focused on mid-sized males. Response targets and injury criteria for other demographics, including small females, have been determined by scaling values from mid-sized males. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of scaled injury criteria to their representative population. Two PMHS were subjected to a side-impact loading condition which replicates a near-side, MDB-to-vehicle impact for the driver. This was accomplished using the Advanced Side Impact System, or ASIS, on a HYGE sled. The sled acceleration matched the acceleration profile of an impacted vehicle, while the four pneumatic cylinders of the ASIS produced realistic door intrusion.
Technical Paper

Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1082
With high maneuverability and heavy-duty load capacity, articulated steer vehicles (ASV) are widely used in construction, forestry and mining sectors. However, the steering process of ASV is much different from wheeled steer vehicles and tractor-trailer vehicles. Unsuitable steering control in path following could easily give rise to the “snaking” behaviour, which greatly reduces the safety and stability of ASV. In order to achieve precise control for ASV, a novel path tracking control method is proposed by virtual terrain field (VTF) method. A virtual U-shaped terrain field is assumed to exist along the reference path. The virtual terrain altitude depends on the lateral error, heading error, preview distance and road curvature. If the vehicle deviates from the reference line, it will be pulled back to the lowest position under the influence of additional lateral tire forces which are caused by the virtual banked road.
Technical Paper

Inertia Tensor and Center of Gravity Measurement for Engines and Other Automotive Components

2019-04-02
2019-01-0701
A machine has been developed to measure the complete inertia matrix; mass, center of gravity (CG) location, and all moments and products of inertia. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying engine vibrations, calculation of the torque roll axis, and in the placement of engine mounts. While the machine was developed primarily for engines it can be used for other objects of similar size and weight, and even smaller objects such as tires and wheels/rims. A key feature of the device is that the object, once placed on the test table, is never reoriented during the test cycle. This reduces the testing time to an hour or less, with the setup time being a few minutes to a few hours depending on the complexity of the shape of the object. Other inertia test methods can require up to five reorientations, separate CG measurement, and up to several days for a complete test.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0496
In this manuscript a design and implementation of CACC on an autonomous vehicle platform (2017 Ford Fusion) is presented. The developed CACC controls the intervehicle distance between the target vehicle and ego vehicle using a feedforward PD controller. In this design the feedforward information is the acceleration of the target vehicle which is communicated through Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) modem. The manuscript explains the detailed architecture of the designed CACC with used hardware and methods for the both simulation and experiments. Also, an approach to overcome detection failures at the curved roads is presented to improve overall quality of the designed CACC system. As a result, the initial simulation and experimental results with the designed CACC system is presented in the paper. The presented results indicate that CACC improves the car following performance of the ego vehicle as compared to the classical Adaptive Cruise Controller.
Technical Paper

System Engineering of an Advanced Driver Assistance System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0876
Current Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) often interact with the driver; aiding with either warnings or direct intervention. This work explores the development of an ADAS system to provide lane departure warning, forward collision warning, and a recommended following distance for a custom plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle. The system utilizes off-the-shelf hardware with in-house computer vision and sensor fusion algorithms to create a low-cost SAE Level 0 driver assistance system. The system utilizes a radar sensor as well as a camera to detect, classify, and track target vehicles. This work will illustrate the systems engineering methods used for outlining customer requirements, technical requirements, component selection, software development, simulation, vehicle fitment, and validation. Similar system engineering processes could be implemented for higher level SAE systems.
Technical Paper

FMVSS 126 Sine with Dwell ESC Regulation Test for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1011
Electronic stability control (ESC) has been an essential part of road vehicle safety for almost three decades. In April of 2007, the United States federal government issued a regulation to test the validity of ESC in development vehicles, and the regulation is called Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 126 in North America (NA), and an equivalent test in other countries outside of NA called ECE13-H (Economic Commission for Europe). While these standards have been used to certify ESC in development passenger cars for over a decade, this has not yet been scrutinized for the application of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous cars have sensors and control systems which can be used to improve ESC, where commercial standard vehicles do not.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Warning Signals in Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1013
The rise of automation in the automotive industry has ensured significant progress in vehicle safety and infrastructure. During the transition to full autonomy, the driver is often the redundancy and safety feature in the event of a hazard or automation error. Understanding driver behavior in the transition from non-driver to driver is important for safety. Proper handling of transitions will be more critical as these events become less common and users trust automated driving systems. This research investigates the case of SAE level-3 automated driving systems, where the driver need not constantly pay attention but is responsible for reaction during hazards. Findings include quantitative and qualitative assessment of various warning modes for a distracted driver responding to an automated driving failure situation. Driver response time and behavior for these events are compared to instances with minimal warning systems.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Control, and Adaptation for Shift Quality Control of Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1129
The parameters determining shift quality control in automatic transmissions are determined as part of the calibration of the transmission control. The resulting control system typically has three components: feedforward control, where the control output is determined before a gearshift; feedback control, where the control output is determined during the gearshift based on sensed feedback; and learning control (adaptation), where the feedforward or feedback controller parameters are modified after the current gearshift has ended and before the next similar gearshift begins. Gearshifts involving the same ratio change are referred to here as similar gearshifts, though such gearshifts may involve differences in other variables such as vehicle speed or engine torque.
Technical Paper

Application of Collision Probability Estimation to Calibration of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1133
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are designed and calibrated rigorously to provide them with the robustness against highly uncertain environments that they usually operate in. Typical calibration procedures for such systems rely extensively on track (controlled environment) testing, which is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes cannot cover all the critical test scenarios that could be encountered by ADAS in the real world. Therefore, virtual (simulation-based) testing and validation has been gaining more prominence and emphasis for ensuring high coverage along with easier scalability and usage. This paper attempts to provide an alternative approach for calibrating ADAS in the controller validation phase by the aid of simulated test case scenarios. The study executes characterization of the uncertainty in the position and heading of the ego and the obstacle vehicles.
Technical Paper

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-1078
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.
Technical Paper

Application of Adversarial Networks for 3D Structural Topology Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0829
Topology optimization is a branch of structural optimization which solves an optimal material distribution problem. The resulting structural topology, for a given set of boundary conditions and constraints, has an optimal performance (e.g. minimum compliance). Conventional 3D topology optimization algorithms achieve quality optimized results; however, it is an extremely computationally intensive task which is, in general, impractical and computationally unachievable for real-world structural optimal design processes. Therefore, the current development of rapid topology optimization technology is experiencing a major drawback. To address the issues, a new approach is presented to utilize the powerful abilities of large deep learning models to replicate this design process for 3D structures. Adversarial models, primarily Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Networks (WGAN), are constructed which consist of 2 deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) namely, a discriminator and a generator.
X