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Technical Paper

Kinematics Response of the PMHS Brain to Rotational Loading of the Head: Development of Experimental Methods and Analysis of Preliminary Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-0547
Experimentally derived brain response envelopes are needed to evaluate and validate existing finite element (FE) head models. Motion of the brain relative to the skull during rotational input was measured using high-speed biplane x-ray. To generate repeatable, reproducible, and scalable data, methods were developed to reduce experimental variance. An “extreme-energy” device was developed to provide a controlled input that is unaffected by specimen characteristics. Additionally, a stereotactic frame was used to deploy radiopaque markers at specific, pre-determined locations within the brain. One post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) head specimen was subjected to repeat tests of a half-sine rotational speed pulse in the sagittal plane. The desired pulse had a peak angular speed of 40 rad/s and duration of 30 ms. Relative motion of the brain was quantified using radiopaque targets and high-speed biplane x-ray. Frontal and occipital intracranial pressure (ICP) were also measured.
Technical Paper

Application of Scaled Deflection Injury Criteria to Two Small, Fragile Females in Side Impact Motor Vehicle Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0542
Thoracic injury criteria have been previously developed to predict thoracic injury for vehicle occupants as a function of biomechanical response. Historically, biomechanical testing of post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) for injury criteria development has primarily been focused on mid-sized males. Response targets and injury criteria for other demographics, including small females, have been determined by scaling values from mid-sized males. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of scaled injury criteria to their representative population. Two PMHS were subjected to a side-impact loading condition which replicates a near-side, MDB-to-vehicle impact for the driver. This was accomplished using the Advanced Side Impact System, or ASIS, on a HYGE sled. The sled acceleration matched the acceleration profile of an impacted vehicle, while the four pneumatic cylinders of the ASIS produced realistic door intrusion.
Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

High Speed Ridged Fasteners for Multi-Material Joining

2019-04-02
2019-01-1117
Automobile manufacturers are reducing the weight of their vehicles in order to meet strict fuel economy legislation. To achieve this goal, a combination of different materials such as steel, aluminum and carbon fiber composites are being considered for use in vehicle bodies. The ability to join these different materials is an ongoing challenge and an area of research for automobile manufacturers. Multiridged fasteners are a viable option for this type of multi-material joining. Commercial systems exist and are being used in the industry, however, new ridged nail designs offer the potential for improvement in several areas. The goal of this paper is to prototype and test a safer flat-end fastener whilst not compromising on strength characteristics, to prevent injury to factory workers. The nails were prototyped using existing RIVTAC® nails.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Control, and Adaptation for Shift Quality Control of Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1129
The parameters determining shift quality control in automatic transmissions are determined as part of the calibration of the transmission control. The resulting control system typically has three components: feedforward control, where the control output is determined before a gearshift; feedback control, where the control output is determined during the gearshift based on sensed feedback; and learning control (adaptation), where the feedforward or feedback controller parameters are modified after the current gearshift has ended and before the next similar gearshift begins. Gearshifts involving the same ratio change are referred to here as similar gearshifts, though such gearshifts may involve differences in other variables such as vehicle speed or engine torque.
Technical Paper

Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-1063
Many smart cities and car manufacturers have been investing in Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications by integrating the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) technology to improve the fuel economy, safety, and ride comfort for the end users. For example, Columbus, OH, USA is placing DSRC Road Side Units (RSU) to the traffic lights which will publish traffic light Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) information. With DSRC On Board Unit (OBU) equipped vehicles, people will start benefiting from this technology. In this paper, to accelerate the V2I application development for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV), a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator with DSRC RSU and OBU is presented. The developed HIL simulator environment is employed to implement, develop and evaluate V2I connected vehicle applications in a fast, safe and cost-effective manner.
Technical Paper

Application of Adversarial Networks for 3D Structural Topology Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0829
Topology optimization is a branch of structural optimization which solves an optimal material distribution problem. The resulting structural topology, for a given set of boundary conditions and constraints, has an optimal performance (e.g. minimum compliance). Conventional 3D topology optimization algorithms achieve quality optimized results; however, it is an extremely computationally intensive task which is, in general, impractical and computationally unachievable for real-world structural optimal design processes. Therefore, the current development of rapid topology optimization technology is experiencing a major drawback. To address the issues, a new approach is presented to utilize the powerful abilities of large deep learning models to replicate this design process for 3D structures. Adversarial models, primarily Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Networks (WGAN), are constructed which consist of 2 deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) namely, a discriminator and a generator.
Technical Paper

Integrated Approach to the Selection of Cost-Effective and Lean Process and Equipment in Forming

1999-03-01
1999-01-0423
A significant number of formed parts constitute the components of an automobile or aircraft. The formed blanks for the components are produced at different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 2250 degrees Fahrenheit for steel. Forming progressions convert a basic shape or geometry (a cylindrical billet, for example) of metal into a more complex shape close to the required final component geometry. The progression steps, choice of temperatures and equipment significantly impact the cost of the blank. A ‘Discriminating Cost Model’ was developed to capture the cost effectiveness of a given choice of process or equipment, and an AI (Artificial Intelligence) search algorithm implemented to quickly search through the large number of process and equipment selection options to arrive at the most cost effective choice. Two applications of this methodology to existing plant processes to significantly reduce cost and implement ‘lean’ principles of manufacturing are discussed.
Journal Article

Comparative Assessment of Frequency Dependent Joint Properties Using Direct and Inverse Identification Methods

2015-06-15
2015-01-2229
Elastomeric joints are utilized in many automotive applications, and exhibit frequency and excitation amplitude dependent properties. Current methods commonly identify only the cross-point joint property using displacement excitation at stepped single frequencies. This process is often time consuming and is limited to measuring a single dynamic stiffness term of the joint stiffness matrix. This study focuses on developing tractable laboratory inverse experiments to identify frequency dependent stiffness matrices up to 1000 Hz. Direct measurements are performed on a commercial elastomer test system and an inverse experiment consisting of an elastic beam (with a square cross section) attached to a cylindrical elastomeric joint. Sources of error in the inverse methodology are thoroughly examined and explained through simulation which include ill-conditioning of matrices and the sensitivity to modeling error.
Journal Article

Fast Simulation of Wave Action in Engine Air Path Systems Using Model Order Reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0572
Engine downsizing, boosting, direct injection and variable valve actuation, have become industry standards for reducing CO2 emissions in current production vehicles. Because of the increasing complexity of the engine air path system and the high number of degrees of freedom for engine charge management, the design of air path control algorithms has become a difficult and time consuming process. One possibility to reduce the control development time is offered by Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) or Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation methods. However, it is significantly challenging to identify engine air path system simulation models that offer the right balance between fidelity, mathematical complexity and computational burden for SIL or HIL implementation.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption by Using Information from Connected and Automated Vehicle Modules to Optimize Propulsion System Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1213
Global regulatory targets and customer demand are driving the automotive industry to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Methods for achieving increased efficiency include improvements in the internal combustion engine and an accelerating shift toward electrification. A key enabler to maximizing the benefit from these new powertrain technologies is proper systems integration work - including developing optimized controls for the propulsion system as a whole. The next step in the evolution of improving the propulsion management system is to make use of available information not typically associated with the powertrain. Advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity systems and cloud applications can provide information to the propulsion management system that allows a shift from instantaneous optimization of fuel consumption, to optimization over a route. In the current paper, we present initial work from a project being done as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Cooling System for a Range Extended Electric Truck

2019-04-02
2019-01-0158
Battery packs used in electrified automotive powertrains support heavy electrical loads resulting in significant heat generation within them. Cooling systems are used to regulate the battery pack temperatures, helping to slow down battery aging. Vehicle-level energy consumption simulations serve as a first step for determining the specifications of a battery cooling system based on the duty cycle and interactions with the rest of the powertrain. This paper presents the development of a battery model that takes into account the energy impact of heating in the battery and demonstrates its use in a vehicle-level energy consumption simulator to set the specifications of a suitable cooling system for a vehicle application. The vehicle application used in this paper is a Class 6 Pickup and Delivery commercial vehicle with a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) powertrain configuration.
Journal Article

Driver’s Response Prediction Using Naturalistic Data Set

2019-04-02
2019-01-0128
Evaluating the safety of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) is a challenging problem, especially in traffic conditions involving dynamic interactions. A thorough evaluation of the vehicle’s decisions at all possible critical scenarios is necessary for estimating and validating its safety. However, predicting the response of the vehicle to dynamic traffic conditions can be the first step in the complex problem of understanding vehicle’s behavior. This predicted response of the vehicle can be used in validating vehicle’s safety. In this paper, models based on Machine Learning were explored for predicting and classifying driver’s response. The Naturalistic Driving Study dataset (NDS), which is part of the Strategic Highway Research Program-2 (SHRP2) was used for training and validating these Machine Learning models.
Technical Paper

Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

2019-10-14
2019-01-2620
This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.
Technical Paper

Rear-Facing Child Restraint Systems in Rear Impact Sled Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-1325
This study examines the performance of rear-facing child restraint systems (RF CRS) in moderate severity rear impact sled tests. The study also investigates the effects of RF CRS features on CRS kinematics and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) injury metrics in this scenario. Twelve tests were conducted at a moderate severity rear impact sled pulse (approximately 28.2 km/h and 18.4 g). Four models of RF CRS were tested in the rear outboard positions of a sedan seat. The CRABI 12-month-old and Hybrid III 3-year-old ATDs were instrumented with head and chest accelerometers, head angular rate sensors, six-axis upper neck load cells, and a chest linear potentiometer (3-year-old only). The effects of carry handle position, occupant size, presence of anti-rebound bar, Swedish style tethering, and lower anchor vs. seat belt installation were investigated. Data were also compared to pediatric injury assessment reference values (IARV).
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