Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Adaptation of TruckSim Models to Simulate Experimental Heavy Truck Hard Braking Test Data Under Various Levels of Brake Disablement

2010-10-05
2010-01-1920
This research focuses on the development and performance of analytical models to simulate a tractor-semitrailer in straight-ahead braking. The simulations were modified and tuned to simulate full-treadle braking with all brakes functioning correctly, as well as the behavior of the tractor-semitrailer rig under full braking with selected brakes disabled. The models were constructed in TruckSim and based on a tractor-semitrailer used in dry braking performance testing. The full-scale vehicle braking research was designed to define limits for engineering estimates on stopping distance when Class 8 air-braked vehicles experience partial degradation of the foundation brake system. In the full scale testing, stops were conducted from 30 mph and 60 mph, with the combination loaded to 80,000 lbs (gross combined weight or GCW), half payload, and with the tractor-semitrailer unladen (lightly loaded vehicle weight, or LLVW).
Technical Paper

Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Car-Following Behavior of Automated Vehicles for Safety Evaluation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0142
With the emergence of Driving Automation Systems (SAE levels 1-5), the necessity arises for methods of evaluating these systems. However, these systems are much more challenging to evaluate than traditional safety features (SAE level 0). This is because an understanding of the Driving Automation system’s response in all possible scenarios is desired, but prohibitive to comprehensively test. Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate one such system, by modeling its behavior. The model generated parameters not only allow for objective comparison between vehicles, but also provide a more complete understanding of the system. The model can also be used to extrapolate results by simulating other scenarios without the need for conducting more tests. In this paper, low speed automated driving (also known as Traffic Jam Assist (TJA)) is studied. This study focused on the longitudinal behavior of automated vehicles while following a lead vehicle (LV) in traffic jam scenarios.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

2019-04-02
2019-01-0129
The challenges posed by connected and autonomous vehicles fall beyond the scope of current version of ISO 26262. According to the current functional safety standard, controllability, largely affected by human intervention, is a large contributor to the definition of the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). Since the driver involvement in CAVs will decrease in future, this gives no clear definition for future functional safety design. On the other hand, CAVs bring additional capabilities such as advance sensors, telematics-based connectivity etc. which can be used to devise efficient approaches to address functional safety (FuSa) challenges. The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc.
Technical Paper

A Physics-Based, Control-Oriented Turbocharger Compressor Model for the Prediction of Pressure Ratio at the Limit of Stable Operations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0320
Downsizing and boosting is currently the principal solution to reduce fuel consumption in automotive engines without penalizing the power output. A key challenge for controlling the boost pressure during highly transient operations lies in avoiding to operate the turbocharger compressor in its instability region, also known as surge. While this phenomenon is well known by control engineers, it is still difficult to accurately predict during transient operations. For this reason, the scientific community has directed considerable efforts to understand the phenomena leading to the onset of unstable behavior, principally through experimental investigations or high-fidelity CFD simulations. On the other hand, less emphasis has been placed on creating control-oriented models that adopt a physics-based (rather than data-driven) approach to predict the onset of instability phenomena.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
Technical Paper

Development of the Design of a Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2016-04-05
2016-01-1257
The design of a performance hybrid electric vehicle includes a wide range of architecture possibilities. A large part of the design process is identifying reasonable vehicle architectures and vehicle performance capabilities. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team designed a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed with a 44-mile all-electric range. It also features an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak electric machine. This report details the design and modeling process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The process included researching the customer needs of the vehicle, determining team design goals, initial modeling, and selecting a vehicle architecture.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0496
In this manuscript a design and implementation of CACC on an autonomous vehicle platform (2017 Ford Fusion) is presented. The developed CACC controls the intervehicle distance between the target vehicle and ego vehicle using a feedforward PD controller. In this design the feedforward information is the acceleration of the target vehicle which is communicated through Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) modem. The manuscript explains the detailed architecture of the designed CACC with used hardware and methods for the both simulation and experiments. Also, an approach to overcome detection failures at the curved roads is presented to improve overall quality of the designed CACC system. As a result, the initial simulation and experimental results with the designed CACC system is presented in the paper. The presented results indicate that CACC improves the car following performance of the ego vehicle as compared to the classical Adaptive Cruise Controller.
Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

System Engineering of an Advanced Driver Assistance System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0876
Current Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) often interact with the driver; aiding with either warnings or direct intervention. This work explores the development of an ADAS system to provide lane departure warning, forward collision warning, and a recommended following distance for a custom plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle. The system utilizes off-the-shelf hardware with in-house computer vision and sensor fusion algorithms to create a low-cost SAE Level 0 driver assistance system. The system utilizes a radar sensor as well as a camera to detect, classify, and track target vehicles. This work will illustrate the systems engineering methods used for outlining customer requirements, technical requirements, component selection, software development, simulation, vehicle fitment, and validation. Similar system engineering processes could be implemented for higher level SAE systems.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Control, and Adaptation for Shift Quality Control of Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1129
The parameters determining shift quality control in automatic transmissions are determined as part of the calibration of the transmission control. The resulting control system typically has three components: feedforward control, where the control output is determined before a gearshift; feedback control, where the control output is determined during the gearshift based on sensed feedback; and learning control (adaptation), where the feedforward or feedback controller parameters are modified after the current gearshift has ended and before the next similar gearshift begins. Gearshifts involving the same ratio change are referred to here as similar gearshifts, though such gearshifts may involve differences in other variables such as vehicle speed or engine torque.
Technical Paper

Application of Collision Probability Estimation to Calibration of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1133
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are designed and calibrated rigorously to provide them with the robustness against highly uncertain environments that they usually operate in. Typical calibration procedures for such systems rely extensively on track (controlled environment) testing, which is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes cannot cover all the critical test scenarios that could be encountered by ADAS in the real world. Therefore, virtual (simulation-based) testing and validation has been gaining more prominence and emphasis for ensuring high coverage along with easier scalability and usage. This paper attempts to provide an alternative approach for calibrating ADAS in the controller validation phase by the aid of simulated test case scenarios. The study executes characterization of the uncertainty in the position and heading of the ego and the obstacle vehicles.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Cutting Parameters in Two-Stage Piercing to Reduce Edge Strain Hardening

2019-04-02
2019-01-1092
Edge fracture is a common problem when forming advanced high strength steels (AHSS). A particular case of edge fracture occurs during a collar forming/hole extrusion process, which is widely used in the sheet metal forming industry. This study attempts to relate the edge stretchability in collar forming to the strain hardening along the pierced edge; thus, Finite Element (FE) simulations can be used to reduce the number of experiments required to improve cutting settings for a given material and thickness. Using a complex-phase steel, CP-W 800 with thickness of 4.0 mm, a single-stage piercing operation is compared with a two-stage piercing operation, so called shaving, in terms of strains along the pierced edge, calculated by FE simulation. Results indicated that strains were reduced along the pierced edge by shaving.
Technical Paper

Model Order Reduction for x-In the Loop (xIL) Simulation of Automotive Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1042
Increasing complexity of automotive systems along with growing safety and performance requirements, is causing development cycle costs to swell. A common solution is to use a Model-Based Design (MBD) approach, particularly using x-In the Loop (xIL) simulation methods for Validation and Verification (V&V). MBD allows efficient workflow from offline control design using high-fidelity models to real time V&V using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulations. It is very challenging to reduce the complex non-linear high-fidelity models to real-time capable models for HIL simulation. Current literature does not provide a standard approach for obtaining the HIL-capable reduced model for complex non-linear systems. In this paper we present an approach to perform model reduction in light of HIL-level requirements. The approach is presented using an example of a 10-speed automatic transmission. The system constitutes three subsystems - the hydraulic network, mechanical gearbox, and torque converter.
Technical Paper

Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-1063
Many smart cities and car manufacturers have been investing in Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications by integrating the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) technology to improve the fuel economy, safety, and ride comfort for the end users. For example, Columbus, OH, USA is placing DSRC Road Side Units (RSU) to the traffic lights which will publish traffic light Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) information. With DSRC On Board Unit (OBU) equipped vehicles, people will start benefiting from this technology. In this paper, to accelerate the V2I application development for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV), a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator with DSRC RSU and OBU is presented. The developed HIL simulator environment is employed to implement, develop and evaluate V2I connected vehicle applications in a fast, safe and cost-effective manner.
Technical Paper

Application of Adversarial Networks for 3D Structural Topology Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0829
Topology optimization is a branch of structural optimization which solves an optimal material distribution problem. The resulting structural topology, for a given set of boundary conditions and constraints, has an optimal performance (e.g. minimum compliance). Conventional 3D topology optimization algorithms achieve quality optimized results; however, it is an extremely computationally intensive task which is, in general, impractical and computationally unachievable for real-world structural optimal design processes. Therefore, the current development of rapid topology optimization technology is experiencing a major drawback. To address the issues, a new approach is presented to utilize the powerful abilities of large deep learning models to replicate this design process for 3D structures. Adversarial models, primarily Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Networks (WGAN), are constructed which consist of 2 deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) namely, a discriminator and a generator.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0488
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City

2019-04-02
2019-01-0493
As the technology in autonomous vehicle and smart city infrastructure is developing fast, the idea of smart city and automated driving has become a present and near future reality. Both Highway Chauffeur and low speed shuttle applications are tested recently in different research to test the feasibility of autonomous vehicles and automated driving. Based on examples available in the literature and the past experience of the authors, this paper proposes the use of a unified computing, sensing, communication and actuation architecture for connected and automated driving. It is postulated that this unified architecture will also lead to a scalable and replicable approach. Two vehicles representing a passenger car and a small electric shuttle for smart mobility in a smart city are chosen as the two examples for demonstrating scalability and replicability.
Technical Paper

Discrete-time Robust PD Controlled System with DOB/CDOB Compensation for High Speed Autonomous Vehicle Path Following

2019-04-02
2019-01-0674
In recent years, there has been increasing research on automated driving technology. Autonomous vehicle path following performance is one of significant consideration. This paper presents discrete time design of robust PD controlled system with disturbance observer (DOB) and communication disturbance observer (CDOB) compensation to enhance autonomous vehicle path following performance. Although always implemented on digital devices, DOB and CDOB structure are usually designed in continuous time in the literature and also in our previous work. However, it requires high sampling rate for continuous-time design block diagram to automatically convert to corresponding discrete-time controller using rapid controller prototyping systems. In this paper, direct discrete time design is carried out. Digital PD feedback controller is designed based on the nominal plant using the proposed parameter space approach.
Technical Paper

Integrated Approach to the Selection of Cost-Effective and Lean Process and Equipment in Forming

1999-03-01
1999-01-0423
A significant number of formed parts constitute the components of an automobile or aircraft. The formed blanks for the components are produced at different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 2250 degrees Fahrenheit for steel. Forming progressions convert a basic shape or geometry (a cylindrical billet, for example) of metal into a more complex shape close to the required final component geometry. The progression steps, choice of temperatures and equipment significantly impact the cost of the blank. A ‘Discriminating Cost Model’ was developed to capture the cost effectiveness of a given choice of process or equipment, and an AI (Artificial Intelligence) search algorithm implemented to quickly search through the large number of process and equipment selection options to arrive at the most cost effective choice. Two applications of this methodology to existing plant processes to significantly reduce cost and implement ‘lean’ principles of manufacturing are discussed.
X