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Supplier Discussions - 2012

2012-03-29
Seven different suppliers will discuss their latest technologies. Panelist Jon Bereisa, Auto Lectrification LLC John Burgers, Dana Canada Corporation Derek De Bono, Valeo Dusan Graovac, Infineon Technologies AG Ronald P. Krupitzer, American Iron and Steel Institute Timothy J. Lawler, Bosch Corp. Ian M. Sharp, Flybrid Systems LLP
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2007-04-16
2007-01-0512
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers whose performance can no longer be measured in MIPS. Instead, their effectiveness is based on a coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, what the designer needs are benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment. This presentation will explore the role of new benchmarks in the development of complex automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Effective System Development Partitioning

2001-03-05
2001-01-1221
In terms of modern technical systems, the automotive sector is characterized by escalating complexity and functionality requirements. The development of embedded control systems has to meet highest demands regarding process-, time- and cost-optimization. Hence, the efficiency of software development becomes a crucial competitive advantage. Systems design engineers need effective tools and methods to achieve exemplary speed and productivity within the development phase. To obtain such tools and methods, semiconductor manufacturers and tool manufacturers must work closely together. Within the joint efforts of ETAS and Infineon, the software tool suite ASCET-SD was enhanced to generate efficient C code for Infineon's TriCore architecture mapped on ETAS's real-time operating system ERCOSEK. The processor interface to application & calibration tools was realized using the ETK probe based on a JTAG/Nexus link at very high bandwidth.
Technical Paper

Performance and Technology Comparison of GMR Versus Commonly used Angle Sensor Principles for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0397
Position detection and control is necessary in modern automotive applications because of remotely controlled actuators, such as window lifters or windshield. In recent years, the demand for reliable actuators for safety critical systems, such as power steering systems, has also increased significantly. This creates a growing demand for fast, accurate and efficient servo motor systems that are increasingly smarter, smaller and cheaper. One interesting option is to use Giant Magneto Resistive (GMR) angle sensors to replace the resolvers, Hall, inductive and Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect (AMR) Sensors commonly used today for shaft-angle measurements. In principle, there are functional differences among various angle measurement technologies; thus, the effect of switching between them needs to be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Microsecond Bus (μSB): The New Open-Market Peripheral Serial Communication Standard

2005-04-11
2005-01-0057
For the past approximately 20 years, the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) has been the established standard for serial communication between a host or central microprocessor and peripheral devices. This standard has been used extensively in control modules covering the entire spectrum of automotive applications, as well as non-automotive applications. As the complexity of engine control modules grows, with the number of vehicle actuators being controlled and monitored increasing, the number of loads the central microprocessor has to manage is growing accordingly. These loads are typically controlled using discrete and pulse-width modulated (PWM) outputs from the microcontroller when real-time operation is essential or via SPI when real-time response is not critical. The increase of already high pin-count on microcontrollers, the associated routing effort and demand for connected power stages is a concern of cost and reliability for future ECU designs.
Technical Paper

Sensor Signal Delivery

2005-04-11
2005-01-0043
The signal delivery and quality of sensor data is of growing importance for modern automotive control applications. Sensors tend to be calibrated subsystems that are designed to stay in a defined tolerance and thus can easily be modeled. Compared to this deterministic behavior the transmission channel is time variant due to EMC and aging of contacts for example. The use of analog signaling, which is the actual state of realization in many cases, is sensitive to the time variant effects mentioned before. This time variance is hard to consider for the control system development. In this paper we will analyze the role of the sensor in the signal supply chain and discuss approaches for digital sensor-ECU communication and their potential to establish a link, which allows neglecting low level effects of the channel.
Technical Paper

MultiCore Benefits & Challenges for Automotive Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0989
This paper will give an overview of multicore in automotive applications, covering the trends, benefits, challenges, and implementation scenarios. The automotive silicon industry has been building multicore and multiprocessor systems for a long time. The reasons for this choice have been: increased performance, safety redundancy, increased I/O & peripheral, access to multiple architectures (performance type e.g. DSP) and technologies. In the past, multiprocessors have been mainly considered as multi-die, multi-package with simple interconnection such as serial or parallel busses with possible shared memories. The new challenge is to implement a multicore, micro-processor that combines two or more independent processors into a single package, often a single integrated circuit (IC). The multicores allow a computing device to exhibit some form of thread-level parallelism (TLP).
Technical Paper

In-vehicle Network Verification from Application to Physical Layer

2004-03-08
2004-01-0208
The verification of an in-vehicle network often requires to look at more than one level of abstraction at a time. At the moment, this is not addressed by existing methods, which are dedicated either to physical or application layer, but not both. This paper fills this gap by introducing a methodology to insert the protocol related software execution as well as the motor behavior into the physical layer mixed-signal (i.e. analog/digital) simulation. Electronics and mechanics are covered by the hardware description language VHDL-AMS, while the software is given in C.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic and Control Systems for Automotive Power Electronics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0075
The recent improvements in automotive electronics have had a tremendous impact on safety, comfort and emissions. But the continuous increase of the volume of electronic equipment in cars (representing more than 25% of purchasing volume) as well as the increasing system complexity represent a new challenge to quality, post-sales customer support and maintenance. Identifying a fault in a complex network of ECUs, where the different functions are getting more and more intricate, is not an easy task. It can be shown that with the levels of reliability common in 1980, an upper-range automobile of today could never function fault-free. On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) concepts are emerging to assist the maintenance personnel in localizing the source of a problem with high accuracy, reducing the vehicle repair time, repair costs and costs of warranty claims.
Technical Paper

Safety Element out of Context - A Practical Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0033
ISO 26262 is the actual standard for Functional Safety of automotive E/E (Electric/Electronic) systems. One of the challenges in the application of the standard is the distribution of safety related activities among the participants in the supply chain. In this paper, the concept of a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) development will be analyzed showing its current problematic aspects and difficulties in implementing such an approach in a concrete typical automotive development flow with different participants (e.g. from OEM, tier 1 to semiconductor supplier) in the supply chain. The discussed aspects focus on the functional safety requirements of generic hardware and software development across the supply chain where the final integration of the developed element is not known at design time and therefore an assumption based mechanism shall be used.
Technical Paper

Timing Correctness in Safety-Related Automotive Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0449
Automotive applications classed as safety-related or safety-critical are now important differentiating technologies in the automotive industry. The emergence of safety standard ISO 26262 underlines the increasing importance of safety in automotive software. As well as functional requirements, hard real-time requirements are of crucial importance to safety-related software as there is a need to prove that the system functionality is fulfilled, even in worst-case scenarios. Measurement-based WCET (Worst-Case Execution Time) analysis combines on-target timing measurements with static analysis of program structure to calculate predicted worst-case paths and times. This is in contrast to traditional end-to-end timing measurements, which give no confidence that the worst-case path is actually tested and no insight into the location of any timing problems that do emerge.
Technical Paper

Advanced Gasoline Engine Management Platform for Euro IV & CHN IV Emission Regulation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1704
The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
Technical Paper

Single-Edge Nibble Transmission: Challenges and Evolutions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0125
Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) is a promising low-cost solution for communication between off-ECU sensors and a microcontroller. First, this paper analyses the advantages of digital sensors with a special focus on position sensors. The possible integration of SENT in other application fields (such as pressure sensors) is also discussed. Secondly, it describes possible solutions for handling SENT communication on microcontrollers and it gives practical examples based on Infineon's TriCore and XC2000 families. It discusses the constraints and limitations on software level and how they could be solved by dedicated hardware implementations. Finally, this paper presents the Short PWM Code (SPC) protocol, which is a further extension of the SENT protocol. SPC aims at increasing the performance of the communication link and reducing system costs at the same time. By allowing bidirectional communication, SPC opens the way to new system relevant functionalities.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT's for Advanced Distributed Ignition Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0518
Driven by factors like consumption, power output per liter, comfort and more stringent exhaust gas standards the powertain control area, has developed rapidly in the last decades. This trend has also brought with it many innovations in the ignition application. Today we can see a trend to Pencil-coil or Plug-top-coil ignition systems. The next step in system partitioning is to remove the power driver from the ECU and place it directly in/on the coil body. The advantages of the new partitioning - e.g. no high voltage wires, reduced power dissipation on the ECU - are paid with different, mainly tougher requirements for the electronic components. By using specialized technologies for the different functions - IGBT for switching the power, SPT for protection, supply and diagnostics - in chip-on-chip technology all required functions for a decentralized ignition system can be realized in a TO220/ TO263 package.
Technical Paper

Virtual Prototypes as Part of the Design Flow of Highly Complex ECUs

2005-04-11
2005-01-1342
Automotive powertrain and safety systems under design today are highly complex, incorporating more than one CPU core, running with more than 100 MHz and consisting of several 10 million transistors. Software complexity increases similarly making new methodologies and tools mandatory to manage the overall system. The use of accurate virtual prototypes improves the quality of systems with respect to system architecture design and software development. This approach is demonstrated with the example of the PCP/GPTA subsystem for Infineon's AUDO-NG powertrain controllers.
Technical Paper

Design Process Changes Enabling Rapid Development

2004-10-18
2004-21-0085
This paper will address the electronic development in the wireless industry and compare it to the electronic development in the automotive industry. The wireless industry is characterized by rapid, dramatic high tech changes with a less than two-year cycle time and an equivalent life cycle. The automotive electronics industry is working toward reducing the typical 2 to 3 year development cycle down 1 to 2 years but with a life cycle of 10 years or more. In addition to realizing the electronic development benefits seen in the wireless industry, the automotive industry places significantly more emphasis on the quality and reliability aspects of their designs as many of them are targeted toward, or interface with, safety critical applications. One of the lessons learned from the wireless industry is the development process; where the hardware selection process can be accomplished in a virtual environment in conjunction with concurrent software development.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Partitioning for New Generation of Automatic Transmission Gearbox Controllers

2006-04-03
2006-01-0403
This paper shall present advancements in electronic transmission control circuits addressing new challenges in the gearbox striving for improved vehicle efficiency and comfort of driving. Efficient chipset design, requires finding the optimal partitioning, that is the mapping of functionality to hardware or software and analog or digital circuit technology. The efficiency will be judged by minimal cost whilst achieving improved functionality and required scalability for a platform approach. Specific examples demonstrated are smart sensor architecture and new mapping of control strategies, realized with a novice integrated current control IC concept. Comparisons on system level are used to evaluate different function mappings as well as component partitioning. Details of the most optimized mapping and partitioning will be elaborated and first results of implementation in silicon components will be shown.
Technical Paper

Seamless Solution for Electronic Power Steering

2006-04-03
2006-01-0593
The number of safety critical automotive applications employing high current brushless motors continues to increase (Steering, Braking, and Transmission etc.). There are many benefits when moving from traditional solutions to electrically actuated solutions. Some of these benefits can include increased fuel economy, simplified vehicle installation and packaging, increased feature set, improved safety and/or convenience, simplified unit assembly and modular testability prior as well as during vehicle manufacturing. The trend to implement brushless motors in these applications (which require electronically controlled commutation) has also brought with it the need for powerful inverters, which primarily consist of Power MOSFETs and MOSFET Driver ICs. This paper reviews the challenges associated with the design of safety critical electronic systems which combine sensing, control and actuation.
Technical Paper

Over the Air Software Update Realization within Generic Modules with Microcontrollers Using External Serial FLASH

2017-03-28
2017-01-1613
Connecting mobile communication channels to vehicles’ networks is currently attracting engineers in a wide range. Herein the desire of vehicle manufacturers to remotely execute software updates over the air (SOTA) within electronic control units (ECU) is probably the field of highest attention at the moment. Today software updates are typically done at vehicle service stations and connection the vehicles electronic network via the onboard diagnosis (OBD) interface to a service computer. Herby the duration of the update is invisible to the user, as this happens during standard service appointments. With introduction of SOTA, these updates become very convenient to the customer and can lead to higher customer satisfaction levels. SOTA can be made transparent to the user however the method of implementation can affect the user experience.
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

2017-03-28
2017-01-1659
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
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