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Technical Paper

A Prototype Vehicle for Powertrain and Chassis Control System Tests

2011-06-09
2011-37-0028
A prototype vehicle (PV) is equipped to test powertrain and active chassis systems with innovative control strategies for safety and energy saving. Additional sensors installed on-board allow the measurement and estimation of new information useful to the vehicle dynamic control. The PV was based on a serial production passenger car with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Testing activities on Controller Area Network (CAN) and ESC Electronic Control Unit (ECU) are carried out to compare the vehicle dynamic performance obtainable using serial production rather than customized control strategies, while maintaining the same hardware. The PV is also utilized to provide reverse engineering analysis about the implemented control strategy for the ESC working in serial production mode.
Technical Paper

H-ergo: Electric-Hydrogen Powered Personal Mobility Concept Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0031
H-ergo, a concept of light electric vehicle devoted to personal mobility, will here be presented. H-ergo is a low-noise, user-friendly, zero-emission vehicle, with a pleasant style. Its main features include high payload/vehicle mass ratio, electric energy supplied either by batteries or by fuel cell, ergonomic style in order to transport a driver or a person whit mobility problems, chassis design to minimize cost of production, variable wheelbase (through electric actuator). The paper presents the main ideas on which the vehicle design was based and summarizes the most important results obtained.
Technical Paper

Base Model Simulator (BMS) - A Vehicle Dynamics Model to Evaluate Chassis Control Systems Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-0401
Chassis Control Systems development methodology is nowadays strongly based on analyzing performance by using PC vehicle dynamics simulation. Generally, the overall design, test bench and road validation process is continuously accompanied by simulation. The Base Model Simulator was developed by the Vehicle Dynamics Group at the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino both to satisfy this requirement and for educational purposes. It considers a complete vehicle dynamics mathematical model, including driver, powertrain, driveline, vehicle body, suspensions, steering system, brakes, tires. The Base Model Simulator takes in account the suspensions system elastokinematics, including, for example, automatic computation of camber variation during the vehicle roll motions. Tire model considered are either Pacejka's models or experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Control Logic for a Four Wheel Steer Vehicle - Part 1: Analysis and Design

2005-04-11
2005-01-1267
Through a single track model, correspondence between typical frequency analysis coefficients and test driver's opinion developed after experimental tests has been stated. Benchmark analysis of several vehicles, considered significant, has been carried out as well as a sensitivity analysis of vehicle behavior depending on passive design parameters, such as vehicle sideslip stiffness and tyre relaxation length. It led to the definition of the different transfer function capable of describing passive vehicle linear behavior; vehicle performance limits, due to unbridgeable physical phenomenon, has been also considered. 4WS vehicle chance to overcome these limits has been investigated, depending on rear steering control logic complexity. Vehicle frequency response has been then analyzed for different longitudinal velocity, introducing thus the concept of “natural vehicle”. The design of a four wheel steer system control logic, based only on feed forward, is described.
Technical Paper

Multi-body Versus Block-Oriented Approach in Suspension Dynamics of a Military Tracked Tank

2009-04-20
2009-01-0443
The superior mobility of a military vehicle provides the combat crew with a tactical advantage through increased cross country speed. The suspension system plays a fundamental role in evaluating a vehicle mobility. A mathematical model that allows realistic simulations of vehicles operating in a wide spectrum of environmental conditions may help to lower costs and time required during their development. The paper concerns with vehicle-terrain interaction modeling, for a military tracked tank, through multi-body and block-oriented approaches. It is focused on the consequences that the suspension system has got on the comfort and on the performance. Thus through a multi-body software a realistic three dimensional model of a tracked fighting vehicle is developed. This virtual model confirms some experimental data available on its longitudinal dynamics. In order to simplify the multi-body simulations, a block-oriented approach is adopted to develop a model of the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Investigate the Dynamic Characteristics of ESP and EHB Hydraulic Units

2006-04-03
2006-01-1281
The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of an In-Hub Motors Hybrid Vehicle for Military Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0659
The paper focuses on the advantages of the diesel electric traction applied to military vehicles. In recent years electric cars developed mainly to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and cut down the emissions. The reduction of fuel consumption, important for civil vehicles above all to reduce emissions and to lower costs, is important also for the military in order to increase vehicle autonomy. In addition, the interest for hybrid electric military vehicles is linked with vehicle packaging flexibility, on board power generation and stealth potential related to their abilities of silent movement. Among many possible layouts the optimum is considered to be hub mounted drive motors in each wheel [ 1 ]. This study shows the development of a demonstrator of an hybrid electric 4×4 military vehicle. It was carried out for a future extension of the technology to a 8×8 armoured vehicle.
Technical Paper

Steering Feedback Torque Definition and Generation in a Steer by Wire System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0498
Steer by wire (SbW) system is examined, considering the positive effects of the lack of direct mechanical connection between steering wheel and rack. SbW system's steering wheel has to generate a resistant torque which adds to the friction one. Such torque must be felt as natural by the average driver and carry information about vehicle dynamic condition. System prototype is obtained from a classical steering system. Steering wheel is linked to a brushless 12V DC current electric motor designed to develop resistance torque, after steering column is removed, triple stadium planetary gear is necessary to increase the torque output. A hardware in the loop test bench is realized in order to test feedback torque generation and steering wheel efficiency influence on vehicle behaviour. Steering wheel is fixed to the bench and its rotation acquired by an optic encoder. Steering wheel angle is used as input for a ten degrees of freedom vehicle model through an acquisition data board.
Technical Paper

Braking System Components Modelling

2003-10-19
2003-01-3335
The paper deals with a method implemented to study braking systems design, modelling components' characteristics through commercial software. It summarizes the potential improvement possible by using modelling techniques in chassis systems design. The first part consisted in producing a passive braking system model. A first validation was carried out on a test bench by using components of different braking systems. Particular attention was devoted to booster modelization both in semi-stationary and dynamic conditions. The second part was callipers, roll-back and thermal phenomena modelization. Finally, it were modelled Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) Hydraulic Units and their integration with control strategies and with vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Control Logic for a Four Wheel Steer Vehicle – Part 2: Simulation and Road Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-1268
A four wheel steer control logic is described. A first control logic release, obtained during previous research activity, is based only on feed forward (F.F.) but is here upgraded merging closed loop control (C.L.). Integration between F.F. and C.L. is described. Rear steering electromechanical actuator frequency response is analyzed, in order to consider its not ideal behaviour during control logic design. Several simulation are performed to qualitatively evaluate the error committed considering an ideal actuator during the control logic design. Specific manoeuvres are chosen to investigate about active system influence on vehicle handling; a 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model is validated in order to compare simulation results with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Gearbox Design by means of Genetic Algorithm and CAD/CAE Methodologies

2010-04-12
2010-01-0895
The paper discusses a gearbox design method based on an optimization algorithm coupled to a fully integrated tool to draw 3D virtual models, in order to verify both functionality and design. The aim of this activity is to explain how the state of the art of the gear design may be implemented through an optimization software for the geometrical parameters selection of helical gears of a manual transmission, starting from torque and speed time histories, the required set of gear ratios and the material properties. This approach can be useful in order to use either the experimental acquisitions or the simulation results to verify or design all of the single gear pairs that compose a gearbox. Genetic algorithm methods are applied to solve the optimization problems of gears design, due to their capabilities of managing objective functions discontinuous, non-differentiable, stochastic, or highly non-linear.
Journal Article

Pressure Following Strategy for Conventional Braking Control Applied to a HIL Test Bench

2017-09-17
2017-01-2496
Brake systems represent important components for passenger cars since they are strictly related to vehicle safety: Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are the most well-known examples. The paper is focused on the characterization of the braking hydraulic plant and on the design of a pressure following control strategy. This strategy is aimed at pursuing performances and/or comfort objectives beyond the typical safety task. The low-level logic (focus of the paper) consists of a Feedforward and Proportional Integral controller. A Hardware In the Loop (HIL) braking test bench is adopted for pressure controller validation by providing some realistic reference pressure histories evaluated by a high-level controller. Results prove that innovative control strategies can be applied to conventional braking systems for achieving targets not limited to braking issues, i.e., comfort or NVH tasks.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Transmission NVH Performance through Powertrain Control Integration with Active Braking System

2017-06-05
2017-01-1778
This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
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