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Video

Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Video

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-05-30
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-09-08
2013-24-0160
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Combustion Process of Commercial and Reference Fuels on the CFR Laboratory Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2265
As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Calculation of EGR Rate and Intake Charge Oxygen Concentration for Misfire Detection in Diesel Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0149
A new procedure for the real-time estimation of the EGR rate and charge oxygen concentration has been developed, assessed and applied to a low-compression ratio GMPT-E EURO V diesel engine. High EGR rates are usually employed in modern diesel engines to reduce combustion temperatures and NOx emissions, especially at medium-low load and speed conditions. The EGR rate is usually calibrated in steady-state conditions, but, under transient conditions, it can be responsible for misfire occurrence or non optimal combustion cycles, if not properly controlled. In other words, combustion instabilities can occur, especially during tip-in maneuvers, which imply transition from high EGR (low load) to low EGR (high load) rates. Misfire is determined by a temporary reduction in the intake charge oxygen concentration during the closure of the EGR valve.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

Effects of Rail Pressure, Pilot Scheduling and EGR Rate on Combustion and Emissions in Conventional and PCCI Diesel Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1109
In diesel engines the optimization of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption requires the experimental investigation of the effects of different injection strategies as well as of a large number of engine operating variables, such as scheduling of pilot and after pulses, rail pressure, EGR rate and swirl level. Due to the high number of testing conditions involved full factorial approaches are not viable, whereas Design of Experiment techniques have demonstrated to be a valid methodology. However, the results obtained with such techniques require a subsequent critical analysis, so as to investigate the cause and effect relationships between the set of engine operating variables and the combustion process characteristics that affect pollutant formation, noise of combustion and engine efficiency.
Journal Article

Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine during DPF Regeneration

2010-05-05
2010-01-1552
The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
Technical Paper

Nano-Sized Additive Synthesis for Lubricant Oils and Compatibility Tests with After-Treatment Catalysts

2011-09-11
2011-24-0101
Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully obtained, for lubricant applications, by means of a wet chemical synthesis in an aqueous solution employing ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ammonium sulfide as the reactants. Some molybdenum-citrate complexes were formed and they reacted with the ammonium sulfide to form MoS₂ nanoparticles. Mo:citrate molar ratio was identified as being the most relevant of the synthesis parameters that affected the phase and morphology of the final products. The optimized nanopowders were softly agglomerated and amorphous, with a mean size of the primary particles of about 30 nm. The compatibility between the thus obtained MoS₂ nanopowders and some commercial after-treatment catalysts for diesel vehicle engines was tested. Diesel oxidation, soot combustion and ammonia-SCR de-NOx catalysts were considered as were the possible effects on the catalytic activity and their possible reaction to the MoS₂ additive.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2011-09-11
2011-24-0080
The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy for Complex Light-Duty Diesel-Hybrid Powertrains

2011-09-11
2011-24-0076
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) represent a powerful technology to save fuel and reduce CO₂ emissions, through the synergic use of a conventional internal combustion engine and one or more electric machines. However their performance strongly depends on the control strategy that shares the power demand among the engine and the electric motors at each time instant, with the objective of minimizing a pre-defined cost function over an entire driving cycle, and satisfying, at the same time, any additional constraints. The aim of this work is therefore the definition of a methodology to develop, through numerical simulation, a sub-optimal hybrid powertrain controller: starting from the problem definition, the ideal performance for a case study hybrid architecture was analyzed through a global optimization algorithm in order to point out information which can be used to define new control laws.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Mixing Process Dynamics, Combustion and Emissions in a Euro V Diesel Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0018
An innovative approach to the study of combustion and emission formation in modern diesel engines has been applied to a EURO V diesel engine equipped with an indirect-acting piezo injection system. The model is based on the joint use of a predictive non-stationary 1D spray model, which has recently been presented by Musculus and Kattke, and a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model developed by the authors. The combustion chamber content has been split into homogeneous zones, to which mass and energy conservation laws have been applied: an unburned gas zone, made up of air, EGR and residual gas, several fuel/unburned gas mixture zones, premixed combustion burned gas zones and diffusive combustion burned gas zones. The 1D spray model enables the mixing process dynamics of the different fuel parcels with the unburned gas to be estimated for each injection pulse; therefore, the equivalent ratio time-history of each mixture zone can be estimated.
Journal Article

Optimizing the Calibration of a Turbocharged GDI Engine through Numerical Simulation and Direct Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0780
Different optimization strategies for the optimization of the calibration of a turbocharged GDI engine through numerical simulation were analyzed, aiming to evaluate the opportunities offered by direct optimization techniques. A one-dimensional fluid dynamic engine model was used to predict engine performance, taking into account knock and exhaust temperature constraints. Air fuel ratio, spark advance, boost pressure and cam phasing were optimized by means of different optimization strategies, including direct search as well as numerical methods. Both full load (with maximum bmep targets) and part load (with minimum bsfc targets) were considered.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Geometries of the Cylinder Head on the Combustion Characteristics of a VVA Gasoline Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0057
Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Predictive Capabilities of a Combustion Model for a Modern Common Rail Automotive Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0547
The predictive capabilities of an innovative multizone combustion model DIPulse, developed by Gamma Technologies, were assessed in this work for a last generation common rail automotive diesel engine. A detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, was carried out concerning the predicted heat release rate, the in-cylinder pressure trace, as well as NOx and soot emissions for several operating points including both part load and full load points. After a preliminary calibration of the model, the combustion model parameters were then optimized through a Latin Hypercube Design of Experiment (DoE), with the aim of minimizing the RMS error between the predicted and experimental burn rate of several engine operating points, thus achieving a satisfactory agreement between simulation and experimental engine combustion and emissions parameters.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Predictive Capabilities of a Combustion Model for a Modern Downsized Turbocharged SI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0557
A 0D phenomenological turbulence model, based on the K-k and k- ɛ approaches, was coupled with a predictive turbulent combustion model using the commercial code GT-Suite, and its predictive capabilities were assessed for a downsized turbocharged SI engine. Differently from the 3D-CFD approach which is typically utilized to describe the evolution of the in-cylinder flow field, and which has very high computational requirements, the 0D phenomenological approach adopted in this work gives the opportunity to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder charge motion and the subsequent combustion process by means of a turbulent combustion model, with a significantly reduced computational effort, thus paving the way for the simulation of the whole engine operating map.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0152
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of BMEP and NOx Emissions in a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0057
A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

2017-09-04
2017-24-0012
Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
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