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Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-09-08
2013-24-0160
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

The Effects of Neat Biodiesel Usage on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Small Displacement Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1515
The effects of using neat FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine performance at full load with standard (i.e., without any special tuning) ECU calibration were analyzed, highlighting some issues in the low end torque due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures at the turbine inlet, which caused a remarkable decrease of the available boost, with a substantial decrease of the engine torque output, far beyond the expected engine derating due to the lower LHV of the fuel. However, further tests carried out after ECU recalibration, showed that the same torque levels measured under diesel operation can be obtained with neat biodiesel too, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance.
Journal Article

Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine during DPF Regeneration

2010-05-05
2010-01-1552
The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
Technical Paper

Effects of Rapeseed and Jatropha Methyl Ester on Performance and Emissions of a Euro 5 Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0109
The effects of using neat and blended (30% vol.) biodiesel, obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The impact of biodiesel usage on engine performance at full load was analyzed for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration: the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be obtained, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits. In addition, the effects of biodiesel blends on brake-specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO₂, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle. Emissions were also measured at the DPF outlet, thus providing information about after-treatment devices efficiencies with biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Nano-Sized Additive Synthesis for Lubricant Oils and Compatibility Tests with After-Treatment Catalysts

2011-09-11
2011-24-0101
Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully obtained, for lubricant applications, by means of a wet chemical synthesis in an aqueous solution employing ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ammonium sulfide as the reactants. Some molybdenum-citrate complexes were formed and they reacted with the ammonium sulfide to form MoS₂ nanoparticles. Mo:citrate molar ratio was identified as being the most relevant of the synthesis parameters that affected the phase and morphology of the final products. The optimized nanopowders were softly agglomerated and amorphous, with a mean size of the primary particles of about 30 nm. The compatibility between the thus obtained MoS₂ nanopowders and some commercial after-treatment catalysts for diesel vehicle engines was tested. Diesel oxidation, soot combustion and ammonia-SCR de-NOx catalysts were considered as were the possible effects on the catalytic activity and their possible reaction to the MoS₂ additive.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2011-09-11
2011-24-0080
The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Journal Article

Optimizing the Calibration of a Turbocharged GDI Engine through Numerical Simulation and Direct Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0780
Different optimization strategies for the optimization of the calibration of a turbocharged GDI engine through numerical simulation were analyzed, aiming to evaluate the opportunities offered by direct optimization techniques. A one-dimensional fluid dynamic engine model was used to predict engine performance, taking into account knock and exhaust temperature constraints. Air fuel ratio, spark advance, boost pressure and cam phasing were optimized by means of different optimization strategies, including direct search as well as numerical methods. Both full load (with maximum bmep targets) and part load (with minimum bsfc targets) were considered.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0152
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

2017-09-04
2017-24-0012
Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
Journal Article

Active Tire Pressure Control (ATPC) for Passenger Cars: Design, Performance, and Analysis of the Potential Fuel Economy Improvement

2018-04-03
2018-01-1340
Active tire pressure control (ATPC) is an automatic central tire inflation system (CTIS), designed, prototyped, and tested at the Politecnico di Torino, which is aimed at improving the fuel consumption, safety, and drivability of passenger vehicles. The pneumatic layout of the system and the designed solution for on board integration are presented. The critical design choices are explained in detail and supported by experimental evidence. In particular, the results of experimental tests, including the characterizations of various pneumatic components in working conditions, have been exploited to obtain a design, which allows reliable performance of the system in a lightweight solution. The complete system has been tested to verify its dynamics, in terms of actuation time needed to obtain a desired pressure variation, starting from the current tire pressure, and to validate the design.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Fractal Model for the Simulation of Turbulent Flame Propagation in SI Engines

2005-09-11
2005-24-082
The necessity for further reductions of in-cylinder pollutant formation and the opportunity to minimize engine development and testing times highlight the need of engine thermodynamic cycle simulation tools that are able to accurately predict the effects of fuel, design and operating variables on engine performance. In order to set up reliable codes for indicated cycle simulation in SI engines, an accurate prediction of heat release is required, which, in turn, involves the evaluation of in-cylinder turbulence generation and flame-turbulence interaction. This is generally pursued by the application of a combustion fractal model coupled with semi-empirical correlations of available geometrical and thermodynamical mass-averaged quantities. However, the currently available correlations generally show an unsatisfactory capability to predict the effects of flame-turbulence interaction on burning speed under the overall flame propagation interval.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold Gasket

2006-04-03
2006-01-1210
The paper presents experimental investigation and numerical simulation of a commercial exhaust manifold gasket. Non-linearities in geometric and material behavior make exhaust manifold gasket modeling quite complicated. In the paper, two different FE modeling techniques are compared in order to suggest the best modeling way. Experimental data are collected in order to validate the numerical models. Differences between the two modeling techniques are emphasized and a choice criterion is suggested.
Technical Paper

Fluid-Dynamic Modeling and Advanced Control Strategies for a Gaseous-Fuel Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1096
Sustainable mobility has become a major issue for internal combustion engines and has led to increasing research efforts in the field of alternative fuels, such as bio-fuel, CNG and hydrogen addition, as well as into engine design and control optimization. To that end, a thorough control of the air-to-fuel ratio appears to be mandatory in SI engine in order to meet the even more stringent thresholds set by the current regulations. The accuracy of the air/fuel mixture highly depends on the injection system dynamic behavior and to its coupling to the engine fluid-dynamic. Thus, a sound investigation into the mixing process can only be achieved provided that a proper analysis of the injection rail and of the injectors is carried out. The present paper carries out a numerical investigation into the fluid dynamic behavior of a commercial CNG injection system by means of a 0D-1D code.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load PPC Operation using RON70 Fuels

2014-04-01
2014-01-1304
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion is known for reduced hazardous emissions and improved efficiency. Since a low-reactive fuel is required to extend the ignition delay at elevated loads, controllability and stability issues occur at the low-load end. In this investigation seven fuel blends are used, all having a Research Octane Number of around 70 and a distinct composition or boiling range. Four of them could be regarded as ‘viable refinery fuels’ since they are based on current refinery feedstocks. The latter three are based on primary reference fuels, being PRF70 and blends with ethanol and toluene respectively. Previous experiments revealed significant ignition differences, which asked for further understanding with an extended set of measurements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine modified for single cylinder operation. In this investigation, emphasis is put on idling (600 rpm) and low load conditions.
Technical Paper

Octane Rating Methods at High Revolution Speed

1995-10-01
952520
An experimental investigation on a group of unleaded gasolines of different chemical composition has been carried out, in order to analyze their knock behaviour in a mass-produced engine at high revolution speed, to highlight possible inconsistencies with their standard Research and Motor octane numbers and to try to discover explanations for the abovementioned inconsistencies. The investigation has been focused on fuels containing oxygenated compounds, such as alcohols (methanol and ethanol) and ethers (MTBE), with the aim of pointing out the influence of the fuel composition on the octane rating, especially as far as the variation in the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (due to oxygenated compounds blending) is concerned. In particular, the rating of all the fuels under the same relative air/fuel ratio has shown to be a mandatory condition in order to obtain a proper estimate of antiknock performances. The evaluations obtained are consistent with the standard Motor octane numbers.
Journal Article

Impact on Performance, Emissions and Thermal Behavior of a New Integrated Exhaust Manifold Cylinder Head Euro 6 Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0128
The integration of the exhaust manifold in the engine cylinder head has received considerable attention in recent years for automotive gasoline engines, due to the proven benefits in: engine weight diminution, cost saving, reduced power enrichment, quicker engine and aftertreatment warm-up, improved packaging and simplification of the turbocharger installation. This design practice is still largely unknown in diesel engines because of the greater difficulties, caused by the more complex cylinder head layout, and the expected lower benefits, due to the absence of high-load enrichment. However, the need for improved engine thermomanagement and a quicker catalytic converter warm-up in efficient Euro 6 diesel engines is posing new challenges that an integrated exhaust manifold architecture could effectively address. A recently developed General Motors 1.6L Euro 6 diesel engine has been modified so that the intake and exhaust manifolds are integrated in the cylinder head.
Journal Article

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-04-16
2012-01-1008
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium-size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Performance of a Turbocharged S.I. Engine under Transient Operating Conditions by Means of Fast Running Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1115
The aim of this work is the assessment of the predictive capabilities of fast running models, obtained through an appropriate reduction and simplification process from detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models, for a turbocharged s.i. engine under highly transient operating conditions. Simulations results have been compared with experimental data for different types of models, ranging from fully detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models to map-based models, quantifying the degradation of the model accuracy and the reduction in the computational time for different kinds of driving cycles, from moderately transient such as the NEDC to highly dynamic such as the US06.
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