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Technical Paper

H-ergo: Electric-Hydrogen Powered Personal Mobility Concept Vehicle

H-ergo, a concept of light electric vehicle devoted to personal mobility, will here be presented. H-ergo is a low-noise, user-friendly, zero-emission vehicle, with a pleasant style. Its main features include high payload/vehicle mass ratio, electric energy supplied either by batteries or by fuel cell, ergonomic style in order to transport a driver or a person whit mobility problems, chassis design to minimize cost of production, variable wheelbase (through electric actuator). The paper presents the main ideas on which the vehicle design was based and summarizes the most important results obtained.
Technical Paper

Integrated CAD/CAE Functional Design for Engine Components and Assembly

In the present paper, starting from a first attempt design of engine components, a CAD/CAE integrated approach for designing engine is proposed. As first step, some typological quantities are setting in order to define the designed engine, for example the number of cylinders, displacements, thermodynamic cycle and geometrical constraints. Using literature approach and tailored design methodologies, the developed software provides the geometric parameters of the main engine components: crankshaft, piston, wrist pin, connecting rod, bedplate, engine block, cylinder head, bearings, valvetrain. Form the geometrical parameters, the developed software, using 3D CAD parametric models, defines a first functional model of each component and of their mutual interactions. Then a numerical analysis can be evaluated and it provides important feedback result for design targets. In the paper the particular case of a crank mechanism model is presented.
Journal Article

On the Contact Interfaces between the Driver and the Vehicle Seat

In mathematical and mechanical modeling terms, automotive seating is characterized by boundary conditions at the nonlinear contact interfaces. These contact interfaces are subjected to vibro-impacts (slaps) and frictional slips. The slaps occur in contact interfaces at high amplitude vibrations, being characterized by very short duration, rapid dissipation of energy and large accelerations and decelerations. By considering friction in contact interface modeling, the simulation of the interaction between the driver and the vehicle seat becomes more realistic. Vibro-impacts and frictional slips can be simultaneously developed in a contact surface. The boundary conditions identification for a seat and a wide range of drivers' body types is performed using the concept of interference distance or penetration. The interference distance is introduced as an optimization problem. It is shown that the optimization problem provides robust solutions to minimum distance and interference problems.
Technical Paper

City Vehicle XAM 2.0: Design and Optimization of the Composite Suspension System

The use of composite materials is very important in automotive field to meet the European emission and consumption standards set for 2020. The most important challenge is to apply composite materials in structural applications not only in racing vehicles or supercars, but also in mass-production vehicles. In this paper is presented a real case study, that is the suspension wishbone arm (with convergence tie and pull-rod system) of the XAM 2.0 urban vehicle prototype, that it has the particular characteristics that of the front and rear, and left and right suspension system has the same geometry. The starting point has been an existing solution made in aluminum to manufacture a composite one.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Journal Article

Analysis of the Performance of a Turbocharged S.I. Engine under Transient Operating Conditions by Means of Fast Running Models

The aim of this work is the assessment of the predictive capabilities of fast running models, obtained through an appropriate reduction and simplification process from detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models, for a turbocharged s.i. engine under highly transient operating conditions. Simulations results have been compared with experimental data for different types of models, ranging from fully detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models to map-based models, quantifying the degradation of the model accuracy and the reduction in the computational time for different kinds of driving cycles, from moderately transient such as the NEDC to highly dynamic such as the US06.
Technical Paper

Integrated Active and Passive Systems for a Side Impact Scenario

The paper presents a simulation methodology created to support an integrated safety system development process which was tested for the side impact collision load case. The methodology is based on the coupled and complementary use of two software packages: PreScan and Madymo. PreScan was utilized for designing two traffic scenarios and the sensing and control systems for the side collision recognition, while Madymo was utilized for assessing the effects of pre-crash deployment of thorax airbag. The collision conditions from the scenarios were used as input to define a Madymo side collision model of the host vehicle and to investigate and optimize several airbag deployment parameters: pre-crash deployment time, airbag permeability, vent hole size and vent hole opening time.
Journal Article

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium-size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Layout and Control Strategy for Parallel Through-the-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles

This paper describes the optimization of the layout and of the control strategy of through-the-road (TTR) parallel hybrid electric vehicles equipped with two compression-ignition engines that feature different values of maximum output power. First, a tool has been developed to define the optimal layout of each TTR vehicle. This is based on the minimization of the powertrain and fuel cost over a 10-year time span, taking into account the fuel consumption. Several performance requirements are guaranteed during the optimization, namely maximum vehicle velocity, 0-100 km/h acceleration time, gradeability and the all-electric range. A benchmark optimizer that is based on the dynamic programming theory has been developed to identify the optimal working mode and the gear number, which are the control variables of the problem. A mathematical technique, based on the pre-processing of a configuration matrix, has been developed in order to speed up the calculation time.
Technical Paper

Virtual and Experimental Analysis of Brake Assist Systems

The paper deals with the virtual and experimental analysis of two commercial Mechanical Brake Assist systems. They are described in detail, then modeled and experimentally evaluated through a Hardware-In-the-Loop test bench and road tests. Three different kinds of drivers are compared, from the point of view of the performance increase promised by Brake Assist during an emergency brake maneuver. The three driver types are based on the measurement of the behavior of real drivers, as it is presented in specific research activities in literature.
Technical Paper

A Rack-like Facility Prototype for Ground Demonstration of a LSS Based on Plants

In the frame of the space food production research activities conducted in the Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) Advanced Life Support Research and Development laboratory (RecycLAB, [6]), and with the contribution of a degree thesis developed in collaboration with the Politecnico of Torino, a rack-like facility for ground research on Life Support Systems based on Plants has been designed, developed, integrated, verified and tested in TAS-I. The new facility, called EDEN EPISODE 2, is a significant evolution of a previous TAS-I project (EDEN EPISODE 1) and takes benefit from other lower size TAS-I demonstrators (CUBE). It aims at realizing a completely closed and controlled environment for crop production, while a mobile lighting panel allows to maximize the delivered light in each phase of the plant life cycle. Hydroponic and aeroponic techniques have been implemented in the project for nutrient delivery to the plant roots.
Technical Paper

An Objective Evaluation of the Comfort During the Gear Change Process

This paper presents the methodology adopted by Politecnico di Torino Vehicle Dynamics Research Team to obtain objective indices for the evaluation of the comfort during the gear change process. Some test drivers and different passengers traveled on a test vehicle and assigned marks on the basis of their subjective feeling of comfort during the gearshifts. The comparison between the most significant subjective evaluations and the experimental values obtained by the instruments located on the vehicle is presented. As a consequence, some indices (based on physical parameters) to evaluate the efficiency and the comfort of the gearshift process are obtained. They are in good agreement with the subjective evaluations of the drivers and the passengers. The second part of the paper presents a driveline and vehicle model which was conceived to reproduce the phenomena experimented on the vehicle. The experimental validation of the model is presented.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of Variable Displacement Vane Pumps for IC Engine Lubrication

The paper presents geometric, kinematic and fluid-dynamic modelling of variable displacement vane pumps for low pressure applications in internal combustion engines lubrication. All these fundamental aspects are integrated in a simulation environment and form the core of a design tool leading to the assessment of performance, critical issues, related influences and possible solutions in a well grounded engineering support to decision.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Control Logic for a Four Wheel Steer Vehicle – Part 2: Simulation and Road Test

A four wheel steer control logic is described. A first control logic release, obtained during previous research activity, is based only on feed forward (F.F.) but is here upgraded merging closed loop control (C.L.). Integration between F.F. and C.L. is described. Rear steering electromechanical actuator frequency response is analyzed, in order to consider its not ideal behaviour during control logic design. Several simulation are performed to qualitatively evaluate the error committed considering an ideal actuator during the control logic design. Specific manoeuvres are chosen to investigate about active system influence on vehicle handling; a 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model is validated in order to compare simulation results with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driveability: Dynamic Analysis of Powertrain System Components

The term driveability describes the driver's complex subjective perception of the interactions with the vehicle. One of them is associated to longitudinal acceleration aspects. A relevant contribution to the driveability optimization process is, nowadays, realized by means of track tests during which a considerable amount of driveline parameters are tuned in order to obtain a good compromise of longitudinal acceleration response. Unfortunately, this process is carried out at a development stage when a design iteration becomes too expensive. In addition, the actual trend of downsizing and supercharging the engines leads to higher vibrations that are transmitted to the vehicle. A large effort is therefore dedicated to develop, test and implement ignition strategies addressed to minimize the torque irregularities. Such strategies could penalize the engine maximum performance, efficiency and emissions. The introduction of the dual mass flywheel is beneficial to this end.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector Operation with Advanced Injection Strategies

The selection and tuning of the Fuel Injection System (FIS) are among the most critical tasks for the automotive diesel engine design engineers. In fact, the injection strongly affects the combustion phenomena through which controlling a wide range of related issues such as pollutant emissions, combustion noise and fuel efficiency becomes feasible. In the scope of the engine design optimization, the simulation is an efficient tool in order to both predict the key performance parameters of the FIS, and to reduce the amount of experiments needed to reach the final product configuration. In this work a complete characterization of a solenoid ballistic injector for a Light-Duty Common Rail system was therefore implemented in a commercially available one-dimensional computational software called GT-SUITE. The main phenomena governing the injector operation were simulated by means of three sub-models (electro-magnetic, hydraulic and mechanical).
Technical Paper

Improvement of Lap-Time of a Rear Wheel Drive Electric Racing Vehicle by a Novel Motor Torque Control Strategy

This paper presents a novel strategy for the control of the motor torques of a rear wheel drive electric vehicle with the objective of improving the lap time of the vehicle around a racetrack. The control strategy is based upon increasing the size of the friction circle by implementing torque vectoring and tire slip control. A two-level nested control strategy is used for the motor torque control. While the outer level is responsible for computing the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment, the inner level controls the motor torques to realize the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment while simultaneously controlling the wheel longitudinal slip. The performance of the developed controller is analyzed by simulating laps around a racetrack with a non-linear multi-body vehicle model and a professional human racing driver controller setting.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.