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Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

Performance of Combination Particulate/Gaseous Contaminant Air Filters in the Highway and Street Traffic Environment

Automotive cabin filters of the “combo” type are intended to remove both aerosols and gaseous contaminants from air entering the climate control system. We analyze the performance of two filters of this type, using published values for the concentration of gaseous contaminants found in highway and street traffic. Using existing expressions for the performance of activated carbons, including the effects of contaminant concentration, flow rate and carbon bed depth, we calculate retentivity and breakthrough time for benzene and carbon tetrachloride at street-level concentrations. The calculated factors are compared to published test data on similar filters.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional System for Trace Gas Contaminants Removal

The Atmospheric Revitalization System (ARS) provides carbon dioxide removal, trace contaminant control, and gas constituent analysis. In this field, the interest of RecycLAB [5], the TAS-I Advanced Live Support Research & Development laboratory is directed to trace gas contaminants removal and monitoring. During manned space mission, the decontamination of cabin or rack air after contingency events such as fire or pyrolysis is a priority for the crew safety. In this paper, basic zeolites, obtained by impregnation of common zeolites with a basic oxide, are used to remove acid gas contaminants from air stream. A multi-functional system, able to accommodate reactors of different shape, characteristics and set-up, is used at this purpose. This breadboard, called ZEUS (Zeolites for an Environmental-control Unit in Space), is made of AISI 316L stainless steel and consists of a closed loop, in which the inner volume is completely isolated from the external environment.
Technical Paper

OPTIBODY: A New Structural Design Focused in Safety

With electric vehicles becoming more and more popular, the classic “general purpose” vehicle concept is changing to a “dedicated vehicle” concept. Light trucks for goods delivery in cities are one of the examples. The European vehicle category L7e fits perfectly in the low power, low weight vehicle requirements for an electric light truck for goods delivery. However, the safety requirements of this vehicle category are very low and their occupants are highly exposed to injuries in the event of a collision. The European Commission co-funded project OPTIBODY (Optimized Structural components and add-ons to improve passive safety in new Electric Light Trucks and Vans) is developing a new structural concept based on a chassis, a cabin a several add-ons. The add-ons will provide improved protection in case of frontal, side and rear impact.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Combustion Process of Commercial and Reference Fuels on the CFR Laboratory Engine

As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Vehicle for Powertrain and Chassis Control System Tests

A prototype vehicle (PV) is equipped to test powertrain and active chassis systems with innovative control strategies for safety and energy saving. Additional sensors installed on-board allow the measurement and estimation of new information useful to the vehicle dynamic control. The PV was based on a serial production passenger car with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Testing activities on Controller Area Network (CAN) and ESC Electronic Control Unit (ECU) are carried out to compare the vehicle dynamic performance obtainable using serial production rather than customized control strategies, while maintaining the same hardware. The PV is also utilized to provide reverse engineering analysis about the implemented control strategy for the ESC working in serial production mode.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Calculation of EGR Rate and Intake Charge Oxygen Concentration for Misfire Detection in Diesel Engines

A new procedure for the real-time estimation of the EGR rate and charge oxygen concentration has been developed, assessed and applied to a low-compression ratio GMPT-E EURO V diesel engine. High EGR rates are usually employed in modern diesel engines to reduce combustion temperatures and NOx emissions, especially at medium-low load and speed conditions. The EGR rate is usually calibrated in steady-state conditions, but, under transient conditions, it can be responsible for misfire occurrence or non optimal combustion cycles, if not properly controlled. In other words, combustion instabilities can occur, especially during tip-in maneuvers, which imply transition from high EGR (low load) to low EGR (high load) rates. Misfire is determined by a temporary reduction in the intake charge oxygen concentration during the closure of the EGR valve.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

Effects of Rail Pressure, Pilot Scheduling and EGR Rate on Combustion and Emissions in Conventional and PCCI Diesel Engines

In diesel engines the optimization of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption requires the experimental investigation of the effects of different injection strategies as well as of a large number of engine operating variables, such as scheduling of pilot and after pulses, rail pressure, EGR rate and swirl level. Due to the high number of testing conditions involved full factorial approaches are not viable, whereas Design of Experiment techniques have demonstrated to be a valid methodology. However, the results obtained with such techniques require a subsequent critical analysis, so as to investigate the cause and effect relationships between the set of engine operating variables and the combustion process characteristics that affect pollutant formation, noise of combustion and engine efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Advanced Numerical Model for CR Piezo Indirect Acting Injection Systems

A numerical model for simulating a Common Rail Piezo Indirect Acting fuel injection-system under steady state as well as transient operating conditions was developed using a commercial code. A 1D flow model of the main hydraulic system components, including the rail, the rail to injector connecting pipe and the injector, was applied in order to predict the influence of the injector layout and of each part of the hydraulic circuit on the injection system performance. The numerical code was validated through the comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained on a high performance test bench of the Moehwald-Bosch MEP2000/ CA4000 type. The developed injection-system mathematical model was applied to the analysis of transient flows in the hydraulic circuit paying specific attention to the fluid dynamics internal to the injector.
Technical Paper

A Commercial Excavator: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation of the Hydraulic Circuit

The paper addresses some aspects of an ongoing research on a commercial compact excavator. The interest is focused on the analysis and modelling of the whole hydraulic circuit that, beside a load sensing variable displacement pump, features a stack of nine proportional directional control valves modules of which seven are of the load sensing type. Loads being sensed are the boom swing, boom, stick and bucket, right and left track motors and work tools; instead, the blade and the turret swing users do not contribute to the load sensing signal. Of specific interest are the peculiarities that were observed in the stack. In fact, to develop an accurate AMESim modelling, the stack was dismantled and all modules analysed and represented in a CAD environment as 3D parts. The load sensing flow generation unit was replaced on the vehicle by another one whose analysis and modelling have been developed using available design and experimental data.
Journal Article

The Effects of Neat Biodiesel Usage on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Small Displacement Passenger Car Diesel Engine

The effects of using neat FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine performance at full load with standard (i.e., without any special tuning) ECU calibration were analyzed, highlighting some issues in the low end torque due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures at the turbine inlet, which caused a remarkable decrease of the available boost, with a substantial decrease of the engine torque output, far beyond the expected engine derating due to the lower LHV of the fuel. However, further tests carried out after ECU recalibration, showed that the same torque levels measured under diesel operation can be obtained with neat biodiesel too, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance.
Journal Article

Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine during DPF Regeneration

The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
Technical Paper

Effects of Rapeseed and Jatropha Methyl Ester on Performance and Emissions of a Euro 5 Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

The effects of using neat and blended (30% vol.) biodiesel, obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The impact of biodiesel usage on engine performance at full load was analyzed for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration: the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be obtained, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits. In addition, the effects of biodiesel blends on brake-specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO₂, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle. Emissions were also measured at the DPF outlet, thus providing information about after-treatment devices efficiencies with biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Nano-Sized Additive Synthesis for Lubricant Oils and Compatibility Tests with After-Treatment Catalysts

Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully obtained, for lubricant applications, by means of a wet chemical synthesis in an aqueous solution employing ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ammonium sulfide as the reactants. Some molybdenum-citrate complexes were formed and they reacted with the ammonium sulfide to form MoS₂ nanoparticles. Mo:citrate molar ratio was identified as being the most relevant of the synthesis parameters that affected the phase and morphology of the final products. The optimized nanopowders were softly agglomerated and amorphous, with a mean size of the primary particles of about 30 nm. The compatibility between the thus obtained MoS₂ nanopowders and some commercial after-treatment catalysts for diesel vehicle engines was tested. Diesel oxidation, soot combustion and ammonia-SCR de-NOx catalysts were considered as were the possible effects on the catalytic activity and their possible reaction to the MoS₂ additive.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy for Complex Light-Duty Diesel-Hybrid Powertrains

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) represent a powerful technology to save fuel and reduce CO₂ emissions, through the synergic use of a conventional internal combustion engine and one or more electric machines. However their performance strongly depends on the control strategy that shares the power demand among the engine and the electric motors at each time instant, with the objective of minimizing a pre-defined cost function over an entire driving cycle, and satisfying, at the same time, any additional constraints. The aim of this work is therefore the definition of a methodology to develop, through numerical simulation, a sub-optimal hybrid powertrain controller: starting from the problem definition, the ideal performance for a case study hybrid architecture was analyzed through a global optimization algorithm in order to point out information which can be used to define new control laws.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Mixing Process Dynamics, Combustion and Emissions in a Euro V Diesel Engine

An innovative approach to the study of combustion and emission formation in modern diesel engines has been applied to a EURO V diesel engine equipped with an indirect-acting piezo injection system. The model is based on the joint use of a predictive non-stationary 1D spray model, which has recently been presented by Musculus and Kattke, and a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model developed by the authors. The combustion chamber content has been split into homogeneous zones, to which mass and energy conservation laws have been applied: an unburned gas zone, made up of air, EGR and residual gas, several fuel/unburned gas mixture zones, premixed combustion burned gas zones and diffusive combustion burned gas zones. The 1D spray model enables the mixing process dynamics of the different fuel parcels with the unburned gas to be estimated for each injection pulse; therefore, the equivalent ratio time-history of each mixture zone can be estimated.