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Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Performance of Combination Particulate/Gaseous Contaminant Air Filters in the Highway and Street Traffic Environment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1425
Automotive cabin filters of the “combo” type are intended to remove both aerosols and gaseous contaminants from air entering the climate control system. We analyze the performance of two filters of this type, using published values for the concentration of gaseous contaminants found in highway and street traffic. Using existing expressions for the performance of activated carbons, including the effects of contaminant concentration, flow rate and carbon bed depth, we calculate retentivity and breakthrough time for benzene and carbon tetrachloride at street-level concentrations. The calculated factors are compared to published test data on similar filters.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional System for Trace Gas Contaminants Removal

2009-07-12
2009-01-2525
The Atmospheric Revitalization System (ARS) provides carbon dioxide removal, trace contaminant control, and gas constituent analysis. In this field, the interest of RecycLAB [5], the TAS-I Advanced Live Support Research & Development laboratory is directed to trace gas contaminants removal and monitoring. During manned space mission, the decontamination of cabin or rack air after contingency events such as fire or pyrolysis is a priority for the crew safety. In this paper, basic zeolites, obtained by impregnation of common zeolites with a basic oxide, are used to remove acid gas contaminants from air stream. A multi-functional system, able to accommodate reactors of different shape, characteristics and set-up, is used at this purpose. This breadboard, called ZEUS (Zeolites for an Environmental-control Unit in Space), is made of AISI 316L stainless steel and consists of a closed loop, in which the inner volume is completely isolated from the external environment.
Technical Paper

OPTIBODY: A New Structural Design Focused in Safety

2013-11-27
2013-01-2760
With electric vehicles becoming more and more popular, the classic “general purpose” vehicle concept is changing to a “dedicated vehicle” concept. Light trucks for goods delivery in cities are one of the examples. The European vehicle category L7e fits perfectly in the low power, low weight vehicle requirements for an electric light truck for goods delivery. However, the safety requirements of this vehicle category are very low and their occupants are highly exposed to injuries in the event of a collision. The European Commission co-funded project OPTIBODY (Optimized Structural components and add-ons to improve passive safety in new Electric Light Trucks and Vans) is developing a new structural concept based on a chassis, a cabin a several add-ons. The add-ons will provide improved protection in case of frontal, side and rear impact.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-09-08
2013-24-0160
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Calculation of EGR Rate and Intake Charge Oxygen Concentration for Misfire Detection in Diesel Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0149
A new procedure for the real-time estimation of the EGR rate and charge oxygen concentration has been developed, assessed and applied to a low-compression ratio GMPT-E EURO V diesel engine. High EGR rates are usually employed in modern diesel engines to reduce combustion temperatures and NOx emissions, especially at medium-low load and speed conditions. The EGR rate is usually calibrated in steady-state conditions, but, under transient conditions, it can be responsible for misfire occurrence or non optimal combustion cycles, if not properly controlled. In other words, combustion instabilities can occur, especially during tip-in maneuvers, which imply transition from high EGR (low load) to low EGR (high load) rates. Misfire is determined by a temporary reduction in the intake charge oxygen concentration during the closure of the EGR valve.
Journal Article

Effects of Rail Pressure, Pilot Scheduling and EGR Rate on Combustion and Emissions in Conventional and PCCI Diesel Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1109
In diesel engines the optimization of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and fuel consumption requires the experimental investigation of the effects of different injection strategies as well as of a large number of engine operating variables, such as scheduling of pilot and after pulses, rail pressure, EGR rate and swirl level. Due to the high number of testing conditions involved full factorial approaches are not viable, whereas Design of Experiment techniques have demonstrated to be a valid methodology. However, the results obtained with such techniques require a subsequent critical analysis, so as to investigate the cause and effect relationships between the set of engine operating variables and the combustion process characteristics that affect pollutant formation, noise of combustion and engine efficiency.
Journal Article

The Effects of Neat Biodiesel Usage on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Small Displacement Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1515
The effects of using neat FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine performance at full load with standard (i.e., without any special tuning) ECU calibration were analyzed, highlighting some issues in the low end torque due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures at the turbine inlet, which caused a remarkable decrease of the available boost, with a substantial decrease of the engine torque output, far beyond the expected engine derating due to the lower LHV of the fuel. However, further tests carried out after ECU recalibration, showed that the same torque levels measured under diesel operation can be obtained with neat biodiesel too, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance.
Journal Article

Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine during DPF Regeneration

2010-05-05
2010-01-1552
The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
Technical Paper

Effects of Rapeseed and Jatropha Methyl Ester on Performance and Emissions of a Euro 5 Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0109
The effects of using neat and blended (30% vol.) biodiesel, obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The impact of biodiesel usage on engine performance at full load was analyzed for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration: the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be obtained, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits. In addition, the effects of biodiesel blends on brake-specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO₂, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle. Emissions were also measured at the DPF outlet, thus providing information about after-treatment devices efficiencies with biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Nano-Sized Additive Synthesis for Lubricant Oils and Compatibility Tests with After-Treatment Catalysts

2011-09-11
2011-24-0101
Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully obtained, for lubricant applications, by means of a wet chemical synthesis in an aqueous solution employing ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ammonium sulfide as the reactants. Some molybdenum-citrate complexes were formed and they reacted with the ammonium sulfide to form MoS₂ nanoparticles. Mo:citrate molar ratio was identified as being the most relevant of the synthesis parameters that affected the phase and morphology of the final products. The optimized nanopowders were softly agglomerated and amorphous, with a mean size of the primary particles of about 30 nm. The compatibility between the thus obtained MoS₂ nanopowders and some commercial after-treatment catalysts for diesel vehicle engines was tested. Diesel oxidation, soot combustion and ammonia-SCR de-NOx catalysts were considered as were the possible effects on the catalytic activity and their possible reaction to the MoS₂ additive.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Mixing Process Dynamics, Combustion and Emissions in a Euro V Diesel Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0018
An innovative approach to the study of combustion and emission formation in modern diesel engines has been applied to a EURO V diesel engine equipped with an indirect-acting piezo injection system. The model is based on the joint use of a predictive non-stationary 1D spray model, which has recently been presented by Musculus and Kattke, and a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model developed by the authors. The combustion chamber content has been split into homogeneous zones, to which mass and energy conservation laws have been applied: an unburned gas zone, made up of air, EGR and residual gas, several fuel/unburned gas mixture zones, premixed combustion burned gas zones and diffusive combustion burned gas zones. The 1D spray model enables the mixing process dynamics of the different fuel parcels with the unburned gas to be estimated for each injection pulse; therefore, the equivalent ratio time-history of each mixture zone can be estimated.
Technical Paper

H-ergo: Electric-Hydrogen Powered Personal Mobility Concept Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0031
H-ergo, a concept of light electric vehicle devoted to personal mobility, will here be presented. H-ergo is a low-noise, user-friendly, zero-emission vehicle, with a pleasant style. Its main features include high payload/vehicle mass ratio, electric energy supplied either by batteries or by fuel cell, ergonomic style in order to transport a driver or a person whit mobility problems, chassis design to minimize cost of production, variable wheelbase (through electric actuator). The paper presents the main ideas on which the vehicle design was based and summarizes the most important results obtained.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Geometries of the Cylinder Head on the Combustion Characteristics of a VVA Gasoline Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0057
Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of BMEP and NOx Emissions in a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0057
A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions Abatement Via Wall-Flow Traps Based on La0.8Cr0.8Li0.2O3 Catalyst

2005-09-11
2005-24-002
Nano-structured bulk Li-substituted La-Cr perovskites were prepared, characterized, tested in comparison with the reference LaCrO3. The progressive increase in the Li content of the catalysts induces an increase in the catalytic activity owing to the enhancement of the amount of weakly chemisorbed oxygen O-species, key players in the soot oxidation mechanism. However, beyond 20% Cr substitution with Li, part of this latter metal was segregated as LiCrO2. The best single-phase catalyst (La0.8Cr0.8Li0.2O3) was already active well below 350°C. Catalytic traps were prepared by in situ combustion synthesis within cordierite and SiC wall-flow filters on the basis of the above catalysts and tested on real diesel exhaust gases in an engine bench, fully confirming the encouraging results obtained on powder catalysts.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Pollutant Emissions in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine by Means of Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2011-11-08
2011-32-0610
The aim of this work was to obtain a reduction in pollutant emissions, in particular for NOx and Soot, in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine, equipped with a common rail injection system, by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). First, an engine simulation was performed using a one-dimensional code, and the model was then calibrated with experimental results obtained from a previous research work conducted on bench tests. Thanks to the engine model, specific emissions were then determined in all conditions, that is, in “eight modes” pertaining to engine loads and speeds. Both the injection advance and EGR amount were changed for all of these conditions in order to obtain the best compromise between fuel consumption and emissions and to respect standard regulations. The investigation was performed using both the Wiebe and a more complex combustion models; this latter allows in fact to determine the soot emission through the Nagle-Strickland model.
Technical Paper

Development through Simulation of a Turbocharged 2-Stroke G.D.I. Engine Focused on a Range-Extender Application

2017-11-05
2017-32-0121
An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Different Internal EGR Solutions for Small Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0128
Although the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is nowadays mandatory for automotive diesel engines to achieve NOx emissions levels complying with more and more stringent legislation requirements, electronically controlled EGR systems still represent an expensive technology, often unsuitable for small diesel engines for off-road applications or for two/three wheelers. An interesting option for these categories of small diesel engines is the so-called “internal EGR”, which is obtained by modifying the intake or the exhaust valve lift profile, in order to increase the fraction of exhaust residuals at the end of the intake stroke. Different valve lift profiles were therefore evaluated for a 2 cylinders, 700 cc, Lombardini IDI diesel engine, equipping a light 4 wheelers vehicle.
Technical Paper

DPF Supporting Nano-Structured Perovskite Catalysts for NOx and Diesel Soot Emission Control in Commercial Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4173
Nano-structured perovskite-type oxides catalysts La1-xAxFe1-yByO3 (where A = Na, K, Rb and B = Cu), prepared by the Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) method and characterized by BET, XRD, FESEM, AAS and catalytic activity tests in microreactors and engine bench, proved to be effective in the simultaneous removal of soot and NO, the two prevalent pollutants in diesel exhaust gases in the temperature range 350-450°C. The best compromise between soot and nitrogen oxide abatement was shown by La-K-Cu-FeO3 catalyst which displayed the highest catalytic activity towards carbon combustion and the highest NO conversion activity.
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