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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Noise Source in a Ducted Fan Using a Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography

The identification of the propulsion noise of turbofan engines plays an important role in the design of low-noise aircraft. The noise generation mechanisms of a typical turbofan engine are very complicated and it is not practical, if not impossible, to identify these noise sources efficiently and accurately using numerical or experimental techniques alone. In addition, a major practical concern for the measurement of acoustic pressure inside the duct of a turbofan is the placement of microphones and their supporting frames which will change the flow conditions under normal operational conditions. The measurement of acoustic pressures on the surface of the duct using surface-mounted microphones eliminates this undesirable effect. In this paper, a generalized acoustical holography (GAH) method that is capable of estimating aeroacoustic sources using surface sound pressure is developed.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in a Cooled and an Insulated Diesel Engine

Detailed heat transfer measurements were made in the combustion chamber of a Cummins single cylinder NH-engine in two configurations: cooled metal and ceramic-coated. The first configuration served as the baseline for a study of the effects of insulation and wall temperature on heat transfer. The second configuration had several in-cylinder components coated with 1.25 mm (0.050″) layer of zirconia plasma spray -- in particular, piston top, head firedeck and valves. The engine was operated over a matrix of operating points at four engine speeds and several load levels at each speed. The heat flux was measured by thin film thermocouple probes. The data showed that increasing the wall temperature by insulation reduced the heat flux. This reduction was seen both in the peak heat flux value as well as in the time-averaged heat flux. These trends were seen at all of the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Control of Interior Pressure Fluctuations Due to Flow Over Vehicle Openings

Grazing flows over open windows or sunroofs may result in “flow buffeting,” i.e. self-sustained flow oscillations at the Helmholtz acoustic resonance frequency of the vehicle. The associated pressure fluctuations may cause passenger fatigue and discomfort. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, including for example leading edge spoilers, trailing edge deflectors, and leading edge flow diffusers. Most of these control devices are “passive” i.e. they do not involve dynamic control systems. Active control methods, which do require dynamic controls, have been implemented with success for different cases of flow instabilities. Previous investigations of the control of flow-excited cavity resonance have used mainly one or more loudspeakers located within the cavity wall. In this study, oscillated spoilers hinged near the leading edge of the cavity orifice were used. Experiments were performed using a cavity installed within the test section wall of a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Computer Controlled Hydraulics — A Combine Application

The feasibility of controlling the threshing cylinder of a conventional corn combine with electro hydraulic elements controlled by a digital computer was concluded. The laboratory experiments attained the performance index established after consultation with manufacturers and farmers
Technical Paper

Integrity Sensing with Smart Polymers and Rubber Components on Vehicles (i.e. Tires, Hoses, Seals)

This research provides a capacitance based method for monitoring the integrity of tires and other polymeric products during manufacturing and throughout the useful product life. Tire and wheel failures and tire degradation were the reported cause for approximately 19320 vehicle crashes over a two and a half year period according to the U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's 2008 survey. Tires are complex composite structures composed of layers of formulated cross-linked rubber, textiles, and steel reinforcement layers. Tire production requires precise manufacturing through chemical and mechanical methods to achieve secure attachment of all layers. Tires are subjected to a variety of harsh environments, experience heavy loads, intense wear, heat, and in many cases lack of maintenance. These conditions make tires extremely susceptible to damage.
Technical Paper

Farmers Perspective on Machinery Until 2000

Farmers are a small group, mostly college educated who run multi-million dollar yearly operations. Recent favorable economics has allowed this sector to look at new technology and determine the best way to invest in it. New considerations in the last few years have led to minimum/alternative tillage and planting, site specific farming decisions and small technology groups of farmers. The authors have put together their thoughts and wants which should be evaluated by future suppliers of technology and farm machinery.
Technical Paper

Layered Fibrous Treatments for a Sound Absorption and Sound Transmission

In this paper, experimental evidence will be presented to demonstrate that unstiffened, low density fibrous materials are “limp”: i.e., their in vacuo bulk stiffness is very small compared to that of air with the result that the materials' solid phase motion becomes acoustically significant. Next, a new limp porous material model is presented. It is shown that this model may be used in conjunction with transfer matrices to predict the absorption or transmission loss of arbitrarily layered combinations of fibrous layers, permeable or impermeable membranes, and air spaces. The predictions of this model agree well with experimental measurements and so may be used to optimize sound absorption or transmission treatments.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification in Thermal Systems Using Transient Spectral Analysis

A noise source identification technique for the analysis of thermal systems is presented. The proposed method uses transient spectral sound data to assist in determining the source of sound radiation by tracking the variation of the frequency of tones during transient thermal loading (i.e., thermal system warm-up). By considering the temperature dependence of the modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) it can be shown that structure related tones will decrease in frequency during warm-up. Tones due to propagation of sound in many fluids (i.e., gases and water) will increase in frequency during warm-up due to the temperature dependence of the speed of sound. The analysis method is demonstrated by identifying the source of several noise tones for a pulse combustion furnace.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Dependence of NO and Soot Formation and Oxidation in Transient Combusting Jets on Injection and Chamber Conditions

NO and soot emissions from Diesel engines are dependent on several parameters related to the engine design and operating conditions. Multidimensional models are increasingly employed to study the effect of these parameters. In this paper, a multidimensional model for flows, sprays and combustion in engines is employed to study the dependence of NO and soot formation and oxidation on injection timing, injection pressure, chamber temperature, EGR and ignition delay, and compare the computed trends with those observed in experimental studies reported in the literature. Computations are carried out in a typical heavy-duty Diesel engine and additional computations in a constant volume chamber are used to clarify the engine results when appropriate. For several parametric changes, the experimentally observed trends are reproduced. However, several limitations are identified. The structure of the computed combusting jet has differences with those suggested from recent experiments.
Technical Paper

The Use of the Wigner Distribution to Identify Wave-Types in Multi-Element Structures

In this paper it is shown that time-frequency analysis of a transient structural response may be used to identify the wave-types carrying significant energy through a multi-element structure. The identification of various wave-types is possible since each is characterized by its own dispersion relation, with the result that each wave-type may be associated with characteristic features in the time-frequency domain representation of a structural response. For multi-element structures, propagating energy can be converted from one wave-type to another at the junction of the elements. Consequently, for those structures, the characteristic features in the time-frequency domain consist of the superposition of features associated with propagation in each element. In the work described here, the Wigner Distribution has been used to obtain time-frequency domain representations of structural transient responses.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Tire Intensity Levels and Passby Sound Pressure Levels

The object of the work reported here was to relate the acoustic intensity level measured near the contact patch of a driven tire on a passenger vehicle with the passby noise levels measured at a sideline microphone during coast and cruise conditions. Based on those measurements it was then possible to estimate the tire noise contribution to the passby level measured when the vehicle under test was accelerating. As part of this testing program, data was collected using five vehicles at fourteen passby sites in the United States: in excess of 800 data sets were obtained.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Finite Element Model of Elastic Porous Materials

A finite element model (FEM) of elastic noise control materials like polyurethane foams is presented in this paper, and its implementation in two-dimensional form as a computer program is discussed. So that realistic noise control treatments could be studied, methods for coupling the foam FEM with conventional acoustical and structural finite elements are also described. The validity of the foam FEM is demonstrated by computing the sound absorption and transmission characteristics of simple coupled air/foam/panel systems and by comparing the results with existing experimental and analytical results for such arrangements. The FEM has been used to show that the constraint of a foam layer at its edge stiffens the foam acoustically. In addition, it has been found that the constraint of the ends of the facing panels in a foam-lined double panel system increases the sound transmission loss significantly at low frequencies.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Method for Evaluating the Sound Transmission Characteristics of Primary Bulb Body Seals

A laboratory method was developed to evaluate the sound transmission characteristics of road vehicle body seals. Primary bulb seal samples were mounted in a fixture which approximated the geometry of a typical door-gap cavity. The seal fixture was integrated with a rigid panel into the floor of a quiet, low-speed, closed test-section wind tunnel. Flow-excited pressure fluctuations in the door-gap cavity were induced by the air stream instead of by sound waves in a quiescent environment as in standard transmission loss measurements. A soundproof anechoic enclosure located underneath the test-section floor isolated the sound receiver. The sound level reduction between the cavity pressure and the sound pressure into the enclosure, a quantity directly related to the sound transmission loss (TL) in this case, was measured accurately between the 1250 and 5000 Hz one-third octave bands.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Characterization of a Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Flow

Modern diesel engines typically utilize pulse-turbocharging where an increase in exhaust gas transport efficiency is achieved at the expense of creating a highly unsteady flow through the turbine which may have a detrimental effect on turbine performance. As the turbocharger plays a major role in the performance and emissions of the engine system, the characterization of on-engine turbocharger aerodynamics is critical. Thus, this paper is directed at the investigation of the turbocharger turbine volute inlet flowfield on an in-line, six cylinder, diesel engine. Specifically, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a quantitative non-intrusive whole flowfield measurement technique, is used to perform a detailed study of the on-engine pulsating flowfield at the volute inlet of the twin-entry turbocharger turbine.
Technical Paper

The Design and Operation of a Turbocharger Test Facility Designed for Transient Simulation

The turbocharger, consisting of a radial or axial flow turbine and an radial flow compressor presents perhaps one of the most challenging tasks to the turbomachinery designer. Due to the necessity of speed changes in the diesel engine, the turbocharger transits a wide variety of operating points in its normal operation. During an engine speed acceleration or deceleration there will be a lag in the required air delivery to the engine, resulting in increased smoke emission and limiting the power delivered by the engine. In order to investigate the dynamic performance of a turbocharged engine, an essential first step must be the development of an adequate model for transient characteristics of the turbocharger. One of the significant problems that must be overcome for the modeling effort to be successful is a detailed experimental description of the transient performance of the device.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Natural Gas Engine Performance by Multidimensional Modeling

Multidimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict and optimize engine performance of a spark-ignited natural gas engine. The effects of swirl and combustion chamber geometry on in-cylinder turbulence intensity, burning rate and heat transfer are investigated using the KIVA multidimensional engine simulation computer code. The original combustion model in the KIVA code has been replaced by a model which was recently developed to predict natural gas turbulent combustion under engine-like conditions. Measurements from a constant volume combustion chamber and engine test data have been used to calibrate the combustion model. With the numerical results from KIVA code engine thermal efficiencies were predicted by the thermodynamics based WAVE code. The numerical results suggest alternative combustion chamber designs and an optimum swirl range for increasing engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Modeling of Turbocharger Dynamic Performance

The range of applications of heavy duty diesel engines is quite diverse. The development of diesel engines has been characterized by a steady increase in power to weight ratios, with the turbocharger being the key component in achieving this increased performance. The turbocharger, consisting of a radial or axial flow turbine and a radial flow compressor, presents perhaps one of the most challenging tasks facing the turbomachinery designer. This is, to a p a t extent, due to the highly unsteady environment in which the turbocharger operates. The time scales of this unsteadiness range fiom those on the order of exhaust valve frequency to those associated with transient operation during acceleration and deceleration. In order to predict the time-accurate performance of the turbocharger in this environment, a range of dynamic models can be envisioned spanning the range from quasi-steady assumptions to full viscous flow solvers.
Technical Paper

On-Engine Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Flow Characterization

Increased power and fuel efficiency requirements ofmodern vehicle diesel engines have lead to wide pread use of turbocharging to increase engine power-to-weight ratio. Typically, these systems employ pulse-turbocharging where an increase in exhaust gas transport efficiency is achieved at the expense of creating a highly unsteady flow through the turbine. This imposed unsteadiness is known to have a significant effect on turbine performance. To date, research performed to quantify the effects of exhaust pulsations on the performance of radial turbocharger turbines has been performed in off-engine facilities which simulate the engine manifold conditions. However, to better gauge the applicability of these data, a detailed investigation into the actual on-engine turbocharger operating environment is required. Research at Purdue University is focused on the characterization of the nature of the on-engine turbine operating environment and how it relates to turbocharger performance.