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Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Noise Source in a Ducted Fan Using a Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography

2010-04-12
2010-01-0416
The identification of the propulsion noise of turbofan engines plays an important role in the design of low-noise aircraft. The noise generation mechanisms of a typical turbofan engine are very complicated and it is not practical, if not impossible, to identify these noise sources efficiently and accurately using numerical or experimental techniques alone. In addition, a major practical concern for the measurement of acoustic pressure inside the duct of a turbofan is the placement of microphones and their supporting frames which will change the flow conditions under normal operational conditions. The measurement of acoustic pressures on the surface of the duct using surface-mounted microphones eliminates this undesirable effect. In this paper, a generalized acoustical holography (GAH) method that is capable of estimating aeroacoustic sources using surface sound pressure is developed.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

1987-11-01
872288
The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Energy Finite Element Method (EFEM) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) of a Heavy Equipment Cab

1999-05-17
1999-01-1705
The energy finite element method (EFEM) was developed to utilize available finite element geometric models for high frequency structural-acoustic analysis. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a lumped parameter approach currently in widespread use for high frequency analysis. In this investigation, EFEM and SEA models were developed for components of a heavy equipment cab. A generalized joint process (GJP) was developed and used for processing the various joints between structural subsystems. The structural predictions were compared to each other as well as to measurements.
Technical Paper

Control of Interior Pressure Fluctuations Due to Flow Over Vehicle Openings

1999-05-17
1999-01-1813
Grazing flows over open windows or sunroofs may result in “flow buffeting,” i.e. self-sustained flow oscillations at the Helmholtz acoustic resonance frequency of the vehicle. The associated pressure fluctuations may cause passenger fatigue and discomfort. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, including for example leading edge spoilers, trailing edge deflectors, and leading edge flow diffusers. Most of these control devices are “passive” i.e. they do not involve dynamic control systems. Active control methods, which do require dynamic controls, have been implemented with success for different cases of flow instabilities. Previous investigations of the control of flow-excited cavity resonance have used mainly one or more loudspeakers located within the cavity wall. In this study, oscillated spoilers hinged near the leading edge of the cavity orifice were used. Experiments were performed using a cavity installed within the test section wall of a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Computer Controlled Hydraulics — A Combine Application

1980-09-01
801019
The feasibility of controlling the threshing cylinder of a conventional corn combine with electro hydraulic elements controlled by a digital computer was concluded. The laboratory experiments attained the performance index established after consultation with manufacturers and farmers
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of Intercity Buses

1980-11-01
801404
An experimental program was conducted to verify the reduction in fuel consumption achievable with aerodynamic improvements to intercity buses. Wind tunnel model tests were used to develop effective aerodynamic improvements and full-scale road tests to validate the results. Greyhound Lines coach models MC-7 and MC-8 were tested with head- and crosswinds. Aerodynamic drag of the MC-7 was reduced 17 percent at zero yaw. Drag of the MC-8 initially was higher; it was reduced 27 percent at zero yaw by the best fairing. Both low-drag configurations were less sensitive to crosswinds than the original models; significant drag reduction was maintained to 15 degrees yaw angle. Fuel consumption measurements made with aerodynamic fairings installed on an MC-7 showed that the low-drag bus used 11.7 percent less fuel at a steady 55 mph. The cost of the full-scale modifications was estimated at $ 1,500 each for a retrofit kit and no added cost to produce on new vehicles.
Technical Paper

Farmers Perspective on Machinery Until 2000

1996-08-01
961853
Farmers are a small group, mostly college educated who run multi-million dollar yearly operations. Recent favorable economics has allowed this sector to look at new technology and determine the best way to invest in it. New considerations in the last few years have led to minimum/alternative tillage and planting, site specific farming decisions and small technology groups of farmers. The authors have put together their thoughts and wants which should be evaluated by future suppliers of technology and farm machinery.
Technical Paper

Using Target Performance Indicators as a Training and Evaluation Tool

1997-08-05
972618
Most airline maintenance human factors training programs miss the mark when it comes to producing optimal behavioral and procedural changes among participating maintenance professionals. While there are many causes for training outcomes which are less than desired and anticipated, principal among these are the failure of most programs to address the pragmatic learning needs of those technicians as adult learners. Attention to andragogical principles such as clear learning goals, readily apparent relevance and direct applicability of material, immediate feedback, learner directed inquiry and self assessment can contribute greatly to achieving optimal results. A program currently under development at Purdue University utilizes a combination of classroom instruction, group discussion, and learner participation in aviation maintenance scenarios as a method for improving human factors education.
Technical Paper

Promoting More Effective Communication of Maintenance Issues Between Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

2000-05-09
2000-01-1705
The lack of effective and efficient communication between pilots and maintenance technicians has been recognized as a problem in general aviation by both members of the industry and academia. The goal of this paper is to provide an accounting of the impact that communication between maintenance technicians and pilots, or the lack thereof, can have upon both the bottom line and the experience of those who operate within the general aviation arena. The researchers interviewed and observed maintenance technicians and pilots in general aviation operations to identify what members on both sides of the communication process identified as being problematic and troubling. Several of the major barriers to communication, as well as several strategies to overcome those barriers, are discussed.
Journal Article

Control Strategy for the Excitation of a Complete Vehicle Test Rig with Terrain Constraints

2013-04-08
2013-01-0671
A unique concept for a multi-body test rig enabling the simulation of longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems (IMS) at TU Darmstadt. A prototype of this IMS test rig is currently being built. In conjunction with the IMS test rig, the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory (VTPL) at Virginia Tech further developed a full car, seven degree of freedom (7 DOF) simulation model capable of accurately reproducing measured displacement, pitch, and roll of the vehicle body due to terrain excitation. The results of the 7 DOF car model were used as the reference input to the multi-body IMS test rig model. The goal of the IMS/VTPL joint effort was to determine whether or not a controller for the IMS test rig vertical actuator could accurately reproduce wheel displacements due to different measured terrain constraints.
Technical Paper

A Steer-by-Wire System that Enables Remote and Autonomous Operation

2014-09-30
2014-01-2404
Original equipment manufacturers and their customers are demanding more efficient, lighter, smaller, safer, and smarter systems across the entire product line. In the realm of automotive, agricultural, construction, and earth-moving equipment industries, an additional highly desired feature that has been steadily trending is the capability to offer remote and autonomous operation. With the previous requirements in mind, the authors have proposed and validated a new electrohydraulic steering technology that offers energy efficiency improvement, increased productivity, enhanced safety, and adaptability to operating conditions. In this paper, the authors investigate the new steering technology's capacity to support remote operation and demonstrate it on a compact wheel loader, which can be remotely controlled without an operator present behind the steering wheel. This result establishes the new steer-by-wire technology's capability to enable full autonomous operation as well.
Technical Paper

The Use of the Wigner Distribution to Identify Wave-Types in Multi-Element Structures

1993-05-01
931286
In this paper it is shown that time-frequency analysis of a transient structural response may be used to identify the wave-types carrying significant energy through a multi-element structure. The identification of various wave-types is possible since each is characterized by its own dispersion relation, with the result that each wave-type may be associated with characteristic features in the time-frequency domain representation of a structural response. For multi-element structures, propagating energy can be converted from one wave-type to another at the junction of the elements. Consequently, for those structures, the characteristic features in the time-frequency domain consist of the superposition of features associated with propagation in each element. In the work described here, the Wigner Distribution has been used to obtain time-frequency domain representations of structural transient responses.
Technical Paper

Automotive Suspension Models Using Component Mobility Methodology

1993-05-01
931298
The mobility modeling technique is applied to the structure-borne noise path through a vehicle suspension. The model is developed using measured FRF data taken on the isolated components of the suspension and body structure of a midsize sedan. Several important modeling issues of suspensions are resolved. It was determined that multiple degrees of freedom are required to model the coupling at joints between the suspension and body structure. The investigation also demonstrated that bushings should not be included in the measurements used to develop these models and should be added later using simplified bushing parameters. The importance of transfer mobility information between the various suspension attachments was also investigated. The agreement between the mobility model predictions and the measured FRF data for the overall system is better than similar data published in the literature to date.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Statistical Variation of Structural-Acoustic Characteristics of Automotive Vehicles

1993-05-01
931272
Two structure-borne and two airborne paths were measured on 99 “identical” Isuzu RODEOs and 57 “identical” Isuzu pickup trucks. Significant effort was made to control measurement variability but not environmental (climate) variations. A record was kept of the tests of a reference vehicle over the variation of environmental factors. The frequency response functions (FRFs) of the reference vehicle varied by approximately 2-4 dB over the frequency range 0-500 Hz for the structure-borne paths and over 0-1000 Hz for the airborne paths due to measurement and environmental variations. The FRFs of the fleet varied by as much as 5-10 dB over the same frequency range. In this paper, the vehicle tests are described. The reference and the fleet data are shown in raw form. Reduced data and implications of the results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Tire Intensity Levels and Passby Sound Pressure Levels

1995-05-01
951355
The object of the work reported here was to relate the acoustic intensity level measured near the contact patch of a driven tire on a passenger vehicle with the passby noise levels measured at a sideline microphone during coast and cruise conditions. Based on those measurements it was then possible to estimate the tire noise contribution to the passby level measured when the vehicle under test was accelerating. As part of this testing program, data was collected using five vehicles at fourteen passby sites in the United States: in excess of 800 data sets were obtained.
Technical Paper

What is Adequate Resolution in the Numerical Computations of Transient Jets?

1997-02-24
970051
It is generally agreed that adequate resolution is required to reproduce the structure of spray and gas jets in numerical computations. It has not been clarified what this resolution should be although it would appear reasonable to assume that it should be such that the physical scales of the problem are resolved. In the case of a jet, this implies that near the orifice, the jet diameter has to be resolved since this is the appropriate length scale. It is shown in this work that if such a resolution is not used in computing transient jets, the structure of the jet is not reproduced with adequate accuracy. In fact, unexpected, erroneous and misleading dependence on ambient turbulence length and time scales will be predicted when the initial ambient turbulence diffusivity is small relative to the jet diffusivity. When the ambient turbulence diffusivity is of the same order as the jet diffusivity or greater, entrainment rates are significantly underpredicted.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Economy Evaluation of a Safety Compliant Single Passenger Vehicle

1992-09-01
921664
The Nexus vehicle was designed and built for Transport Canada at the University of Saskatchewan to demonstrate that a safety compliant single passenger commuter vehicle could attain extremely low fuel consumption rates at modest highway speeds. Experimentally determined steady state fuel consumption rates of the Nexus prototype ranged from 1.6 L/100 km at 61 km/hr up to 2.8 L/100 km at 121 km/hr. Fuel consumption rates for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) driving cycle tests were 4.5 L/100 km for the SAE Urban cycle and 2.0 L/100 km for the SAE Interstate 55 cycle. The efficiency of the power train was determined using a laboratory dynamometer, enabling the road test results to be compared to the results from an energy and performance simulation program. Predicted fuel economy was in good agreement with that determined experimentally. Widespread use of single passenger commuter vehicles would substantially reduce current transportation energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Water Availability from a Ceramic Tube System Subjected to Non-Standard Gravities

1996-07-01
961505
The Porous Ceramic Tube - Nutrient Delivery System (PCT-NDS) offers means to control water availability to plants under non-standard gravities. It is hypothesized that control can be obtained by applying suction pressure within the ceramic tubes. The research objectives include verifying the presented control equation for the PCT-NDS under micro-(less than 1 g) and hyper- (greater than 1 g) gravities. Experiments were conducted on a KC-135 subjecting the system to near-zero to 2 g's and to sustained hyper-gravities upto 10 g's using a centrifuge. Results indicated that the water availability can be controlled through applied suction pressure.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Vehicle System Design to Grand Prix EV Kart

2011-04-12
2011-01-0353
The renewed interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles has been prompted by the drastic rise in oil prices in 2008 and launch of new initiatives by the Federal Government. One of the key issues is to promote the incorporation of electric drivetrain in vehicles at all levels and particularly with emphasis on educational activities to prepare the workforce needed for the near future. Purdue University has been conducting a Grand Prix for over 50 years with Gas-powered Karts. In April 2010, an annual event was initiated to hold an EV Grand Prix where 17 EV Karts participated in the competition. Four of the participating teams comprised of Purdue students in a new graduate course for EV design and fabrication. Using the basic framework of the gas-powered Kart, an electric version was developed as a part of this course. Other participants were also provided with the guidelines and design parameters developed for the course and competition.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulations of Noise Induced by Flow in HVAC Ventilation Ducts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0505
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate noise generated by flow in automotive HVAC ducts. A hybrid computational method for analyzing flow noise is applied: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for predicting flow fields and Multi-domain boundary element method for predicting acoustic propagation. LES gives time-resolved solutions of flow velocity and pressure fields. By applying the acoustic analogy theory, the unsteady flow parameters are translated into sound source in evaluating the acoustic propagation. The computational result shows the noise caused by the HVAC ducts is strong. The noise is of broadband with a peak value at 370Hz. A major contribution of the noise generation is from the center ducts. Two design modifications of the center ducts are explored to regulate the flow structures with the ducts for reducing noise generation. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modifications.
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