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Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Noise Source in a Ducted Fan Using a Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography

2010-04-12
2010-01-0416
The identification of the propulsion noise of turbofan engines plays an important role in the design of low-noise aircraft. The noise generation mechanisms of a typical turbofan engine are very complicated and it is not practical, if not impossible, to identify these noise sources efficiently and accurately using numerical or experimental techniques alone. In addition, a major practical concern for the measurement of acoustic pressure inside the duct of a turbofan is the placement of microphones and their supporting frames which will change the flow conditions under normal operational conditions. The measurement of acoustic pressures on the surface of the duct using surface-mounted microphones eliminates this undesirable effect. In this paper, a generalized acoustical holography (GAH) method that is capable of estimating aeroacoustic sources using surface sound pressure is developed.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in a Cooled and an Insulated Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890572
Detailed heat transfer measurements were made in the combustion chamber of a Cummins single cylinder NH-engine in two configurations: cooled metal and ceramic-coated. The first configuration served as the baseline for a study of the effects of insulation and wall temperature on heat transfer. The second configuration had several in-cylinder components coated with 1.25 mm (0.050″) layer of zirconia plasma spray -- in particular, piston top, head firedeck and valves. The engine was operated over a matrix of operating points at four engine speeds and several load levels at each speed. The heat flux was measured by thin film thermocouple probes. The data showed that increasing the wall temperature by insulation reduced the heat flux. This reduction was seen both in the peak heat flux value as well as in the time-averaged heat flux. These trends were seen at all of the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

1987-11-01
872288
The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Energy Finite Element Method (EFEM) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) of a Heavy Equipment Cab

1999-05-17
1999-01-1705
The energy finite element method (EFEM) was developed to utilize available finite element geometric models for high frequency structural-acoustic analysis. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a lumped parameter approach currently in widespread use for high frequency analysis. In this investigation, EFEM and SEA models were developed for components of a heavy equipment cab. A generalized joint process (GJP) was developed and used for processing the various joints between structural subsystems. The structural predictions were compared to each other as well as to measurements.
Technical Paper

Control of Interior Pressure Fluctuations Due to Flow Over Vehicle Openings

1999-05-17
1999-01-1813
Grazing flows over open windows or sunroofs may result in “flow buffeting,” i.e. self-sustained flow oscillations at the Helmholtz acoustic resonance frequency of the vehicle. The associated pressure fluctuations may cause passenger fatigue and discomfort. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, including for example leading edge spoilers, trailing edge deflectors, and leading edge flow diffusers. Most of these control devices are “passive” i.e. they do not involve dynamic control systems. Active control methods, which do require dynamic controls, have been implemented with success for different cases of flow instabilities. Previous investigations of the control of flow-excited cavity resonance have used mainly one or more loudspeakers located within the cavity wall. In this study, oscillated spoilers hinged near the leading edge of the cavity orifice were used. Experiments were performed using a cavity installed within the test section wall of a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Computer Controlled Hydraulics — A Combine Application

1980-09-01
801019
The feasibility of controlling the threshing cylinder of a conventional corn combine with electro hydraulic elements controlled by a digital computer was concluded. The laboratory experiments attained the performance index established after consultation with manufacturers and farmers
Technical Paper

Integrity Sensing with Smart Polymers and Rubber Components on Vehicles (i.e. Tires, Hoses, Seals)

2013-04-08
2013-01-0742
This research provides a capacitance based method for monitoring the integrity of tires and other polymeric products during manufacturing and throughout the useful product life. Tire and wheel failures and tire degradation were the reported cause for approximately 19320 vehicle crashes over a two and a half year period according to the U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's 2008 survey. Tires are complex composite structures composed of layers of formulated cross-linked rubber, textiles, and steel reinforcement layers. Tire production requires precise manufacturing through chemical and mechanical methods to achieve secure attachment of all layers. Tires are subjected to a variety of harsh environments, experience heavy loads, intense wear, heat, and in many cases lack of maintenance. These conditions make tires extremely susceptible to damage.
Technical Paper

Farmers Perspective on Machinery Until 2000

1996-08-01
961853
Farmers are a small group, mostly college educated who run multi-million dollar yearly operations. Recent favorable economics has allowed this sector to look at new technology and determine the best way to invest in it. New considerations in the last few years have led to minimum/alternative tillage and planting, site specific farming decisions and small technology groups of farmers. The authors have put together their thoughts and wants which should be evaluated by future suppliers of technology and farm machinery.
Technical Paper

Using Target Performance Indicators as a Training and Evaluation Tool

1997-08-05
972618
Most airline maintenance human factors training programs miss the mark when it comes to producing optimal behavioral and procedural changes among participating maintenance professionals. While there are many causes for training outcomes which are less than desired and anticipated, principal among these are the failure of most programs to address the pragmatic learning needs of those technicians as adult learners. Attention to andragogical principles such as clear learning goals, readily apparent relevance and direct applicability of material, immediate feedback, learner directed inquiry and self assessment can contribute greatly to achieving optimal results. A program currently under development at Purdue University utilizes a combination of classroom instruction, group discussion, and learner participation in aviation maintenance scenarios as a method for improving human factors education.
Technical Paper

A Model for Grinding Burn

1997-06-03
972247
Extensive experimental data was collected for CBN surface grinding of M2 tool steel to determine the relative grinding performance of three different vitrified CBN abrasive grit sizes. The results define the relationships between the grinding forces, the material removal rate and the resulting specific energy, while providing an evaluation of the ground surface characteristics including surface finish, microstructure, hardness and residual stress. The interaction of grinding process inputs including wheel grit size, workpiece velocity and depth of cut are considered, and a series of single factor tests and a 23 factorial test are conducted. The grinding forces increase linearly with increasing material removal rate for the range of parameters tested.
Technical Paper

Layered Fibrous Treatments for a Sound Absorption and Sound Transmission

1997-05-20
972064
In this paper, experimental evidence will be presented to demonstrate that unstiffened, low density fibrous materials are “limp”: i.e., their in vacuo bulk stiffness is very small compared to that of air with the result that the materials' solid phase motion becomes acoustically significant. Next, a new limp porous material model is presented. It is shown that this model may be used in conjunction with transfer matrices to predict the absorption or transmission loss of arbitrarily layered combinations of fibrous layers, permeable or impermeable membranes, and air spaces. The predictions of this model agree well with experimental measurements and so may be used to optimize sound absorption or transmission treatments.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification in Thermal Systems Using Transient Spectral Analysis

1997-05-20
972036
A noise source identification technique for the analysis of thermal systems is presented. The proposed method uses transient spectral sound data to assist in determining the source of sound radiation by tracking the variation of the frequency of tones during transient thermal loading (i.e., thermal system warm-up). By considering the temperature dependence of the modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) it can be shown that structure related tones will decrease in frequency during warm-up. Tones due to propagation of sound in many fluids (i.e., gases and water) will increase in frequency during warm-up due to the temperature dependence of the speed of sound. The analysis method is demonstrated by identifying the source of several noise tones for a pulse combustion furnace.
Technical Paper

A Steer-by-Wire System that Enables Remote and Autonomous Operation

2014-09-30
2014-01-2404
Original equipment manufacturers and their customers are demanding more efficient, lighter, smaller, safer, and smarter systems across the entire product line. In the realm of automotive, agricultural, construction, and earth-moving equipment industries, an additional highly desired feature that has been steadily trending is the capability to offer remote and autonomous operation. With the previous requirements in mind, the authors have proposed and validated a new electrohydraulic steering technology that offers energy efficiency improvement, increased productivity, enhanced safety, and adaptability to operating conditions. In this paper, the authors investigate the new steering technology's capacity to support remote operation and demonstrate it on a compact wheel loader, which can be remotely controlled without an operator present behind the steering wheel. This result establishes the new steer-by-wire technology's capability to enable full autonomous operation as well.
Technical Paper

The Use of the Wigner Distribution to Identify Wave-Types in Multi-Element Structures

1993-05-01
931286
In this paper it is shown that time-frequency analysis of a transient structural response may be used to identify the wave-types carrying significant energy through a multi-element structure. The identification of various wave-types is possible since each is characterized by its own dispersion relation, with the result that each wave-type may be associated with characteristic features in the time-frequency domain representation of a structural response. For multi-element structures, propagating energy can be converted from one wave-type to another at the junction of the elements. Consequently, for those structures, the characteristic features in the time-frequency domain consist of the superposition of features associated with propagation in each element. In the work described here, the Wigner Distribution has been used to obtain time-frequency domain representations of structural transient responses.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Tire Intensity Levels and Passby Sound Pressure Levels

1995-05-01
951355
The object of the work reported here was to relate the acoustic intensity level measured near the contact patch of a driven tire on a passenger vehicle with the passby noise levels measured at a sideline microphone during coast and cruise conditions. Based on those measurements it was then possible to estimate the tire noise contribution to the passby level measured when the vehicle under test was accelerating. As part of this testing program, data was collected using five vehicles at fourteen passby sites in the United States: in excess of 800 data sets were obtained.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Finite Element Model of Elastic Porous Materials

1995-04-01
951087
A finite element model (FEM) of elastic noise control materials like polyurethane foams is presented in this paper, and its implementation in two-dimensional form as a computer program is discussed. So that realistic noise control treatments could be studied, methods for coupling the foam FEM with conventional acoustical and structural finite elements are also described. The validity of the foam FEM is demonstrated by computing the sound absorption and transmission characteristics of simple coupled air/foam/panel systems and by comparing the results with existing experimental and analytical results for such arrangements. The FEM has been used to show that the constraint of a foam layer at its edge stiffens the foam acoustically. In addition, it has been found that the constraint of the ends of the facing panels in a foam-lined double panel system increases the sound transmission loss significantly at low frequencies.
Technical Paper

What is Adequate Resolution in the Numerical Computations of Transient Jets?

1997-02-24
970051
It is generally agreed that adequate resolution is required to reproduce the structure of spray and gas jets in numerical computations. It has not been clarified what this resolution should be although it would appear reasonable to assume that it should be such that the physical scales of the problem are resolved. In the case of a jet, this implies that near the orifice, the jet diameter has to be resolved since this is the appropriate length scale. It is shown in this work that if such a resolution is not used in computing transient jets, the structure of the jet is not reproduced with adequate accuracy. In fact, unexpected, erroneous and misleading dependence on ambient turbulence length and time scales will be predicted when the initial ambient turbulence diffusivity is small relative to the jet diffusivity. When the ambient turbulence diffusivity is of the same order as the jet diffusivity or greater, entrainment rates are significantly underpredicted.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Water Availability from a Ceramic Tube System Subjected to Non-Standard Gravities

1996-07-01
961505
The Porous Ceramic Tube - Nutrient Delivery System (PCT-NDS) offers means to control water availability to plants under non-standard gravities. It is hypothesized that control can be obtained by applying suction pressure within the ceramic tubes. The research objectives include verifying the presented control equation for the PCT-NDS under micro-(less than 1 g) and hyper- (greater than 1 g) gravities. Experiments were conducted on a KC-135 subjecting the system to near-zero to 2 g's and to sustained hyper-gravities upto 10 g's using a centrifuge. Results indicated that the water availability can be controlled through applied suction pressure.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Vehicle System Design to Grand Prix EV Kart

2011-04-12
2011-01-0353
The renewed interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles has been prompted by the drastic rise in oil prices in 2008 and launch of new initiatives by the Federal Government. One of the key issues is to promote the incorporation of electric drivetrain in vehicles at all levels and particularly with emphasis on educational activities to prepare the workforce needed for the near future. Purdue University has been conducting a Grand Prix for over 50 years with Gas-powered Karts. In April 2010, an annual event was initiated to hold an EV Grand Prix where 17 EV Karts participated in the competition. Four of the participating teams comprised of Purdue students in a new graduate course for EV design and fabrication. Using the basic framework of the gas-powered Kart, an electric version was developed as a part of this course. Other participants were also provided with the guidelines and design parameters developed for the course and competition.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulations of Noise Induced by Flow in HVAC Ventilation Ducts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0505
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate noise generated by flow in automotive HVAC ducts. A hybrid computational method for analyzing flow noise is applied: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for predicting flow fields and Multi-domain boundary element method for predicting acoustic propagation. LES gives time-resolved solutions of flow velocity and pressure fields. By applying the acoustic analogy theory, the unsteady flow parameters are translated into sound source in evaluating the acoustic propagation. The computational result shows the noise caused by the HVAC ducts is strong. The noise is of broadband with a peak value at 370Hz. A major contribution of the noise generation is from the center ducts. Two design modifications of the center ducts are explored to regulate the flow structures with the ducts for reducing noise generation. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modifications.
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