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Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Noise Source in a Ducted Fan Using a Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography

2010-04-12
2010-01-0416
The identification of the propulsion noise of turbofan engines plays an important role in the design of low-noise aircraft. The noise generation mechanisms of a typical turbofan engine are very complicated and it is not practical, if not impossible, to identify these noise sources efficiently and accurately using numerical or experimental techniques alone. In addition, a major practical concern for the measurement of acoustic pressure inside the duct of a turbofan is the placement of microphones and their supporting frames which will change the flow conditions under normal operational conditions. The measurement of acoustic pressures on the surface of the duct using surface-mounted microphones eliminates this undesirable effect. In this paper, a generalized acoustical holography (GAH) method that is capable of estimating aeroacoustic sources using surface sound pressure is developed.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Vehicle System Design to Grand Prix EV Kart

2011-04-12
2011-01-0353
The renewed interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles has been prompted by the drastic rise in oil prices in 2008 and launch of new initiatives by the Federal Government. One of the key issues is to promote the incorporation of electric drivetrain in vehicles at all levels and particularly with emphasis on educational activities to prepare the workforce needed for the near future. Purdue University has been conducting a Grand Prix for over 50 years with Gas-powered Karts. In April 2010, an annual event was initiated to hold an EV Grand Prix where 17 EV Karts participated in the competition. Four of the participating teams comprised of Purdue students in a new graduate course for EV design and fabrication. Using the basic framework of the gas-powered Kart, an electric version was developed as a part of this course. Other participants were also provided with the guidelines and design parameters developed for the course and competition.
Technical Paper

Energy Finite Element Method (EFEM) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) of a Heavy Equipment Cab

1999-05-17
1999-01-1705
The energy finite element method (EFEM) was developed to utilize available finite element geometric models for high frequency structural-acoustic analysis. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a lumped parameter approach currently in widespread use for high frequency analysis. In this investigation, EFEM and SEA models were developed for components of a heavy equipment cab. A generalized joint process (GJP) was developed and used for processing the various joints between structural subsystems. The structural predictions were compared to each other as well as to measurements.
Technical Paper

Control of Interior Pressure Fluctuations Due to Flow Over Vehicle Openings

1999-05-17
1999-01-1813
Grazing flows over open windows or sunroofs may result in “flow buffeting,” i.e. self-sustained flow oscillations at the Helmholtz acoustic resonance frequency of the vehicle. The associated pressure fluctuations may cause passenger fatigue and discomfort. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, including for example leading edge spoilers, trailing edge deflectors, and leading edge flow diffusers. Most of these control devices are “passive” i.e. they do not involve dynamic control systems. Active control methods, which do require dynamic controls, have been implemented with success for different cases of flow instabilities. Previous investigations of the control of flow-excited cavity resonance have used mainly one or more loudspeakers located within the cavity wall. In this study, oscillated spoilers hinged near the leading edge of the cavity orifice were used. Experiments were performed using a cavity installed within the test section wall of a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Sound Transmission Test for Automotive Sealant Materials

1997-05-20
971896
A new laboratory method has been developed to evaluate the acoustical properties of expandable and other automotive sealants. These materials are used to reduce wind, road, and powertrain noise transmission into passenger compartments. In the new method, ASTM E 1050 absorption measurement equipment is used along with a new sample holder, a downstream microphone holder (providing two additional microphone locations) and an anechoic termination. These additions permit measurement of normal incidence transmission loss as well as absorption. It is intended to encourage adoption of this method as a standard way of quantifying the acoustical performance of sealants and sealing composites in automotive noise control applications.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for the Interior Pressure Oscillations from Flow Over Vehicle Openings

1997-05-20
971906
An analytical model based on “vortex sound” theory was investigated for predicting the frequency, the relative magnitude, the onset, and the offset of self-sustained interior pressure fluctuations inside a vehicle with an open sunroof. The “buffeting” phenomenon was found to be caused by the flow-excited resonance of the cavity. The model was applied to investigate the optimal sunroof length and width for a mid-size sedan. The input parameters are the cavity volume, the orifice dimensions, the flow velocity, and one coefficient characterizing vortex diffusion. The analytical predictions were compared with experimental results obtained for a system which geometry approximated the one-fifth scale model of a typical vehicle passenger compartment with a rectangular, open sunroof. Predicted and observed frequencies and relative interior pressure levels were in good agreement around the “critical” velocity, at which the cavity response is near resonance.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Primary Bulb Rubber Sealing Systems

1997-05-20
971903
Structural sound transmission through primary bulb (PB) sealing systems was investigated. A two-degrees-of-freedom analytical model was developed to predict the sound transmission characteristics of a PB seal assembly. Detailed sound transmission measurements were made for two different random excitations: acoustic and aerodynamic. A reverberation room method was first used, whereby a seal sample installed within a test fixture was excited by a diffuse sound field. A quiet flow facility was then used to create aerodynamic pressure fluctuations which acted as the excitation. The space-averaged input pressure within the pseudo door gap cavity and the sound pressure transmitted on the quiescent side of the seal were obtained in each case for different cavity dimensions, seal compression, and seal designs. The sound transmission predictions obtained from the lumped element model were found to be in reasonable agreement with measured values.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Wind Noise Using Robust Feedback Control

1997-05-20
971891
A feedback controller bas been developed using robust control techniques to control the sound radiated from turbulent flow driven plates. The control design methodology uses frequency domain loop shaping techniques. System uncertainty, sound pressure level reductions, and actuator constraints are included in the design process. For the wind noise problem, weighting factors have been included to distinguish between the importance of modes that radiate sound and those that do not radiate. The wind noise controller has been implemented in the quiet wind tunnel facility at the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories at Purdue University. A multiple-input, multiple-output controller using accelerometer feedback and shaker control was able to achieve control up to 1000 Hz. Sound pressure level reductions of as much as 15 dB were achieved at the frequencies of the plates modes. Overall reductions over the 100-1000 Hz band were approximately 5 dB.
Technical Paper

A Model Study of How Tire Construction and Materials Affect Vibration-Radiated Noise

1997-05-20
972049
A simple mathematical model was developed and experimentally validated to evaluate how the materials and construction of an automobile tire affect its vibration-radiated noise performance. The mathematical model uses Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) with modal joint acceptance formulations for wavespeed and radiation efficiency of orthotropically-stiffened and pressurized cylindrical shells. Experimental validation of the model included wavenumber decomposition to determine the dispersion characteristics of an inflated, non-rolling tire in the laboratory. The model is used to conduct a preliminary study into how the various tire constituent materials and construction parameters influence the vibration-radiated noise performance.
Technical Paper

Layered Fibrous Treatments for a Sound Absorption and Sound Transmission

1997-05-20
972064
In this paper, experimental evidence will be presented to demonstrate that unstiffened, low density fibrous materials are “limp”: i.e., their in vacuo bulk stiffness is very small compared to that of air with the result that the materials' solid phase motion becomes acoustically significant. Next, a new limp porous material model is presented. It is shown that this model may be used in conjunction with transfer matrices to predict the absorption or transmission loss of arbitrarily layered combinations of fibrous layers, permeable or impermeable membranes, and air spaces. The predictions of this model agree well with experimental measurements and so may be used to optimize sound absorption or transmission treatments.
Technical Paper

Using Target Performance Indicators as a Training and Evaluation Tool

1997-08-05
972618
Most airline maintenance human factors training programs miss the mark when it comes to producing optimal behavioral and procedural changes among participating maintenance professionals. While there are many causes for training outcomes which are less than desired and anticipated, principal among these are the failure of most programs to address the pragmatic learning needs of those technicians as adult learners. Attention to andragogical principles such as clear learning goals, readily apparent relevance and direct applicability of material, immediate feedback, learner directed inquiry and self assessment can contribute greatly to achieving optimal results. A program currently under development at Purdue University utilizes a combination of classroom instruction, group discussion, and learner participation in aviation maintenance scenarios as a method for improving human factors education.
Technical Paper

Pressure Fluctuations in a Flow-Excited Door Gap Cavity Model

1997-05-20
971923
The flow-induced pressure fluctuations in a door gap cavity model were investigated experimentally using a quiet wind tunnel facility. The cavity cross-section dimensions were typical of road vehicle door cavities, but the span was only 25 cm. One cavity wall included a primary bulb rubber seal. A microphone array was used to measure the cavity pressure field over a range of flow velocities and cavity configurations. It was found that the primary excitation mechanism was an “edge tone” phenomenon. Cavity resonance caused amplification around discrete frequencies, but did not cause the flow disturbances to lock-on. Possible fluid-elastic coupling related to the presence of a compliant wall was not significant. A linear spectral decomposition method was then used to characterize the cavity pressure in the frequency domain, as the product of a source spectral distribution function and an acoustic frequency response function.
Technical Paper

Two-Microphone Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of SAE and ISO Passby Surfaces in the Presence of Wind and Temperature Gradients

1997-05-20
971988
It has been noted that there are consistent differences between sideline sound levels measured on the two track types used for standardized motor vehicle passby testing: i.e., ISO and SAE surfaces. When the two-microphone transfer function method was first used in conjunction with a two parameter ground model to characterize the acoustical properties of these asphalt surfaces it was found that there were significant acoustical differences between the ISO and SAE surfaces. However, it was also noted that environmental conditions, e.g., wind and temperature gradients, affected the estimates of surface properties obtained by using that method. In the present work, a ray tracing algorithm has been used to model the effects of environmental refraction on short range propagation over asphalt, and a physically-based single parameter ground model has been used to characterize the asphalt surfaces.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Natural Gas Engine Performance by Multidimensional Modeling

1997-04-01
971567
Multidimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict and optimize engine performance of a spark-ignited natural gas engine. The effects of swirl and combustion chamber geometry on in-cylinder turbulence intensity, burning rate and heat transfer are investigated using the KIVA multidimensional engine simulation computer code. The original combustion model in the KIVA code has been replaced by a model which was recently developed to predict natural gas turbulent combustion under engine-like conditions. Measurements from a constant volume combustion chamber and engine test data have been used to calibrate the combustion model. With the numerical results from KIVA code engine thermal efficiencies were predicted by the thermodynamics based WAVE code. The numerical results suggest alternative combustion chamber designs and an optimum swirl range for increasing engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Recent Advancements in I.C. Engine Robust Speed Controllers

1997-04-01
971568
Presented in this paper is a nonlinear modeling and a controller design methodology for engine control. For illustrative purposes, the methodology is applied to the idle speed of a Ford 4.6L-2 valve V-8 fuel injected engine. The nonlinear model of the engine is based on a Hammerstein type model which is identified through input-output data without a priori knowledge of the engine dynamics. The nonlinear model is subsequently used in a frequency domain controller design methodology to achieve the performance goal of maintaining the engine idle speed within a prespecified asymmetric output tolerance despite external torque disturbances. An experimental verification of the proposed control law is included.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

1987-11-01
872288
The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Journal Article

Investigation of Tradeoffs between Efficiency, Mass, Cost, Service Factor, and Power Factor in Induction Machines

2010-11-02
2010-01-1785
The focus of this research is to perform a detailed investigation of the tradeoffs between mass, efficiency, service factor (SF), power factor (PF), and cost of commercially available induction machines (IMs). To support this effort, data from a large number of IMs is used to establish Pareto-optimal fronts between these competing objectives. From the Pareto-optimal fronts, relatively straightforward models are formulated for the mass versus loss, cost versus loss, SF versus mass, PF versus cost. Parameters of the models are obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA).
Journal Article

Estimation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Parameters from Estimated Linear Models of Behavior around Multiple Settling Points of a Foam-Mass System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0851
Flexible polyurethane foam is the main cushioning element used in car seats. Optimization of an occupied seat's static and dynamic behavior requires models of foam that are accurate over a wide range of excitation and pre-compression conditions. In this research, a method is described to estimate the parameters of a global model of the foam behavior from data gathered in a series of impulse tests at different settling points. The estimated model is capable of describing the responses gathered from all the impulse tests using a unique set of parameters. The global model structure includes a nonlinear elastic term and a hereditary viscoelastic term. The model can be used to predict the settling point for each mass used and, by expanding the model about that settling point, local linear models of the response to impulsive excitation can be derived. From this analysis the relationship between the local linear model parameters and the global model parameters is defined.
Technical Paper

A Steer-by-Wire System that Enables Remote and Autonomous Operation

2014-09-30
2014-01-2404
Original equipment manufacturers and their customers are demanding more efficient, lighter, smaller, safer, and smarter systems across the entire product line. In the realm of automotive, agricultural, construction, and earth-moving equipment industries, an additional highly desired feature that has been steadily trending is the capability to offer remote and autonomous operation. With the previous requirements in mind, the authors have proposed and validated a new electrohydraulic steering technology that offers energy efficiency improvement, increased productivity, enhanced safety, and adaptability to operating conditions. In this paper, the authors investigate the new steering technology's capacity to support remote operation and demonstrate it on a compact wheel loader, which can be remotely controlled without an operator present behind the steering wheel. This result establishes the new steer-by-wire technology's capability to enable full autonomous operation as well.
Journal Article

Control Strategy for the Excitation of a Complete Vehicle Test Rig with Terrain Constraints

2013-04-08
2013-01-0671
A unique concept for a multi-body test rig enabling the simulation of longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems (IMS) at TU Darmstadt. A prototype of this IMS test rig is currently being built. In conjunction with the IMS test rig, the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory (VTPL) at Virginia Tech further developed a full car, seven degree of freedom (7 DOF) simulation model capable of accurately reproducing measured displacement, pitch, and roll of the vehicle body due to terrain excitation. The results of the 7 DOF car model were used as the reference input to the multi-body IMS test rig model. The goal of the IMS/VTPL joint effort was to determine whether or not a controller for the IMS test rig vertical actuator could accurately reproduce wheel displacements due to different measured terrain constraints.
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