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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Noise Source in a Ducted Fan Using a Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography

The identification of the propulsion noise of turbofan engines plays an important role in the design of low-noise aircraft. The noise generation mechanisms of a typical turbofan engine are very complicated and it is not practical, if not impossible, to identify these noise sources efficiently and accurately using numerical or experimental techniques alone. In addition, a major practical concern for the measurement of acoustic pressure inside the duct of a turbofan is the placement of microphones and their supporting frames which will change the flow conditions under normal operational conditions. The measurement of acoustic pressures on the surface of the duct using surface-mounted microphones eliminates this undesirable effect. In this paper, a generalized acoustical holography (GAH) method that is capable of estimating aeroacoustic sources using surface sound pressure is developed.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Control of Interior Pressure Fluctuations Due to Flow Over Vehicle Openings

Grazing flows over open windows or sunroofs may result in “flow buffeting,” i.e. self-sustained flow oscillations at the Helmholtz acoustic resonance frequency of the vehicle. The associated pressure fluctuations may cause passenger fatigue and discomfort. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, including for example leading edge spoilers, trailing edge deflectors, and leading edge flow diffusers. Most of these control devices are “passive” i.e. they do not involve dynamic control systems. Active control methods, which do require dynamic controls, have been implemented with success for different cases of flow instabilities. Previous investigations of the control of flow-excited cavity resonance have used mainly one or more loudspeakers located within the cavity wall. In this study, oscillated spoilers hinged near the leading edge of the cavity orifice were used. Experiments were performed using a cavity installed within the test section wall of a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Computer Controlled Hydraulics — A Combine Application

The feasibility of controlling the threshing cylinder of a conventional corn combine with electro hydraulic elements controlled by a digital computer was concluded. The laboratory experiments attained the performance index established after consultation with manufacturers and farmers
Technical Paper

Farmers Perspective on Machinery Until 2000

Farmers are a small group, mostly college educated who run multi-million dollar yearly operations. Recent favorable economics has allowed this sector to look at new technology and determine the best way to invest in it. New considerations in the last few years have led to minimum/alternative tillage and planting, site specific farming decisions and small technology groups of farmers. The authors have put together their thoughts and wants which should be evaluated by future suppliers of technology and farm machinery.
Technical Paper

Structure-borne Noise Prediction Using an Energy Finite Element Method

Governing equations have been derived to model the space- and frequency-averaged behavior of structural acoustic systems. These equations were derived using assumptions similar to the approximations made in SEA. The equations can be used to develop continuous models of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D subsystems. The equations have been formulated into a finite element approximation referred to as the Energy Finite Element Method (EFEM). In this paper the theory for coupling plate-like structural systems to acoustical systems is derived and implemented into the EFEM. The results of a verification study using a plate mounted on a rectangular acoustical enclosure are shown for two cases, a mechanically driven plate and an acoustically driven enclosure.
Technical Paper

A Model Study of How Tire Construction and Materials Affect Vibration-Radiated Noise

A simple mathematical model was developed and experimentally validated to evaluate how the materials and construction of an automobile tire affect its vibration-radiated noise performance. The mathematical model uses Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) with modal joint acceptance formulations for wavespeed and radiation efficiency of orthotropically-stiffened and pressurized cylindrical shells. Experimental validation of the model included wavenumber decomposition to determine the dispersion characteristics of an inflated, non-rolling tire in the laboratory. The model is used to conduct a preliminary study into how the various tire constituent materials and construction parameters influence the vibration-radiated noise performance.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification in Thermal Systems Using Transient Spectral Analysis

A noise source identification technique for the analysis of thermal systems is presented. The proposed method uses transient spectral sound data to assist in determining the source of sound radiation by tracking the variation of the frequency of tones during transient thermal loading (i.e., thermal system warm-up). By considering the temperature dependence of the modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) it can be shown that structure related tones will decrease in frequency during warm-up. Tones due to propagation of sound in many fluids (i.e., gases and water) will increase in frequency during warm-up due to the temperature dependence of the speed of sound. The analysis method is demonstrated by identifying the source of several noise tones for a pulse combustion furnace.
Technical Paper

The Use of the Wigner Distribution to Identify Wave-Types in Multi-Element Structures

In this paper it is shown that time-frequency analysis of a transient structural response may be used to identify the wave-types carrying significant energy through a multi-element structure. The identification of various wave-types is possible since each is characterized by its own dispersion relation, with the result that each wave-type may be associated with characteristic features in the time-frequency domain representation of a structural response. For multi-element structures, propagating energy can be converted from one wave-type to another at the junction of the elements. Consequently, for those structures, the characteristic features in the time-frequency domain consist of the superposition of features associated with propagation in each element. In the work described here, the Wigner Distribution has been used to obtain time-frequency domain representations of structural transient responses.
Technical Paper

Automotive Suspension Models Using Component Mobility Methodology

The mobility modeling technique is applied to the structure-borne noise path through a vehicle suspension. The model is developed using measured FRF data taken on the isolated components of the suspension and body structure of a midsize sedan. Several important modeling issues of suspensions are resolved. It was determined that multiple degrees of freedom are required to model the coupling at joints between the suspension and body structure. The investigation also demonstrated that bushings should not be included in the measurements used to develop these models and should be added later using simplified bushing parameters. The importance of transfer mobility information between the various suspension attachments was also investigated. The agreement between the mobility model predictions and the measured FRF data for the overall system is better than similar data published in the literature to date.
Technical Paper

Source Identification Using Acoustic Array Techniques

Acoustic array techniques are presented as alternatives to intensity measurements for source identification in automotive and industrial environments. With an understanding of the advantages and limitations described here for each of the available methods, a technique which is best suited to the application at hand may be selected. The basic theory of array procedures for Nearfield Acoustical Holography, temporal array techniques, and an Inverse Frequency Response Function technique is given. Implementation for various applications is discussed. Experimental evaluation is provided for tire noise identification.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Tire Intensity Levels and Passby Sound Pressure Levels

The object of the work reported here was to relate the acoustic intensity level measured near the contact patch of a driven tire on a passenger vehicle with the passby noise levels measured at a sideline microphone during coast and cruise conditions. Based on those measurements it was then possible to estimate the tire noise contribution to the passby level measured when the vehicle under test was accelerating. As part of this testing program, data was collected using five vehicles at fourteen passby sites in the United States: in excess of 800 data sets were obtained.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Finite Element Model of Elastic Porous Materials

A finite element model (FEM) of elastic noise control materials like polyurethane foams is presented in this paper, and its implementation in two-dimensional form as a computer program is discussed. So that realistic noise control treatments could be studied, methods for coupling the foam FEM with conventional acoustical and structural finite elements are also described. The validity of the foam FEM is demonstrated by computing the sound absorption and transmission characteristics of simple coupled air/foam/panel systems and by comparing the results with existing experimental and analytical results for such arrangements. The FEM has been used to show that the constraint of a foam layer at its edge stiffens the foam acoustically. In addition, it has been found that the constraint of the ends of the facing panels in a foam-lined double panel system increases the sound transmission loss significantly at low frequencies.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Water Availability from a Ceramic Tube System Subjected to Non-Standard Gravities

The Porous Ceramic Tube - Nutrient Delivery System (PCT-NDS) offers means to control water availability to plants under non-standard gravities. It is hypothesized that control can be obtained by applying suction pressure within the ceramic tubes. The research objectives include verifying the presented control equation for the PCT-NDS under micro-(less than 1 g) and hyper- (greater than 1 g) gravities. Experiments were conducted on a KC-135 subjecting the system to near-zero to 2 g's and to sustained hyper-gravities upto 10 g's using a centrifuge. Results indicated that the water availability can be controlled through applied suction pressure.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Vehicle System Design to Grand Prix EV Kart

The renewed interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles has been prompted by the drastic rise in oil prices in 2008 and launch of new initiatives by the Federal Government. One of the key issues is to promote the incorporation of electric drivetrain in vehicles at all levels and particularly with emphasis on educational activities to prepare the workforce needed for the near future. Purdue University has been conducting a Grand Prix for over 50 years with Gas-powered Karts. In April 2010, an annual event was initiated to hold an EV Grand Prix where 17 EV Karts participated in the competition. Four of the participating teams comprised of Purdue students in a new graduate course for EV design and fabrication. Using the basic framework of the gas-powered Kart, an electric version was developed as a part of this course. Other participants were also provided with the guidelines and design parameters developed for the course and competition.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulations of Noise Induced by Flow in HVAC Ventilation Ducts

Numerical simulations are performed to investigate noise generated by flow in automotive HVAC ducts. A hybrid computational method for analyzing flow noise is applied: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for predicting flow fields and Multi-domain boundary element method for predicting acoustic propagation. LES gives time-resolved solutions of flow velocity and pressure fields. By applying the acoustic analogy theory, the unsteady flow parameters are translated into sound source in evaluating the acoustic propagation. The computational result shows the noise caused by the HVAC ducts is strong. The noise is of broadband with a peak value at 370Hz. A major contribution of the noise generation is from the center ducts. Two design modifications of the center ducts are explored to regulate the flow structures with the ducts for reducing noise generation. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the modifications.
Technical Paper

Pressure Fluctuations in a Flow-Excited Door Gap Cavity Model

The flow-induced pressure fluctuations in a door gap cavity model were investigated experimentally using a quiet wind tunnel facility. The cavity cross-section dimensions were typical of road vehicle door cavities, but the span was only 25 cm. One cavity wall included a primary bulb rubber seal. A microphone array was used to measure the cavity pressure field over a range of flow velocities and cavity configurations. It was found that the primary excitation mechanism was an “edge tone” phenomenon. Cavity resonance caused amplification around discrete frequencies, but did not cause the flow disturbances to lock-on. Possible fluid-elastic coupling related to the presence of a compliant wall was not significant. A linear spectral decomposition method was then used to characterize the cavity pressure in the frequency domain, as the product of a source spectral distribution function and an acoustic frequency response function.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for the Interior Pressure Oscillations from Flow Over Vehicle Openings

An analytical model based on “vortex sound” theory was investigated for predicting the frequency, the relative magnitude, the onset, and the offset of self-sustained interior pressure fluctuations inside a vehicle with an open sunroof. The “buffeting” phenomenon was found to be caused by the flow-excited resonance of the cavity. The model was applied to investigate the optimal sunroof length and width for a mid-size sedan. The input parameters are the cavity volume, the orifice dimensions, the flow velocity, and one coefficient characterizing vortex diffusion. The analytical predictions were compared with experimental results obtained for a system which geometry approximated the one-fifth scale model of a typical vehicle passenger compartment with a rectangular, open sunroof. Predicted and observed frequencies and relative interior pressure levels were in good agreement around the “critical” velocity, at which the cavity response is near resonance.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Primary Bulb Rubber Sealing Systems

Structural sound transmission through primary bulb (PB) sealing systems was investigated. A two-degrees-of-freedom analytical model was developed to predict the sound transmission characteristics of a PB seal assembly. Detailed sound transmission measurements were made for two different random excitations: acoustic and aerodynamic. A reverberation room method was first used, whereby a seal sample installed within a test fixture was excited by a diffuse sound field. A quiet flow facility was then used to create aerodynamic pressure fluctuations which acted as the excitation. The space-averaged input pressure within the pseudo door gap cavity and the sound pressure transmitted on the quiescent side of the seal were obtained in each case for different cavity dimensions, seal compression, and seal designs. The sound transmission predictions obtained from the lumped element model were found to be in reasonable agreement with measured values.