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Technical Paper

Surface Pressure Fluctuations in Separated-Reattached Flows Behind Notched Spoilers

Notched spoilers may be used to suppress flow-induced cavity resonance in vehicles with open sunroofs or side windows. The notches are believed to generate streamwise vortices that break down the structure of the leading edge cross-stream vortices predominantly responsible for the cavity excitation. The objectives of the present study were to gain a better understanding of the buffeting suppression mechanisms associated with notched spoilers, and to gather data for computational model verification. To this end, experiments were performed to characterize the surface pressure field downstream of straight and notched spoilers mounted on a rigid wall to observe the effects of the notches on the static and dynamic wall pressure. Detailed flow velocity measurements were made using hot-wire anemometry. The results indicated that the presence of notches on the spoiler reduces drag, and thus tends to move the flow reattachment location closer to the spoiler.
Technical Paper

Enabling Strategic Flight Deck Route Re-Planning Within A Modified ATC Environment: The Display of 4-D Intent Information on a CSD

The concept of free flight introduces many challenges for both air and ground aviation operations. Of considerable concern has been the issue of moving from centralized control and responsibility to decentralized control and distributed responsibility for aircraft separation. Data from capacity studies suggest that we will reach our capacity limits with ATC centralized control within the next 2 decades, if not sooner. Based on these predictions, research on distributed air-ground concepts was under taken by NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program to identify and develop air-ground concepts in support of free-flight operations. This paper will present the results of a full mission air-ground simulation conducted in the NASA Crew Vehicle Systems Research Facility. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of advanced displays with “intent” (4-D flight plans) information on flight crew and ATC performance during limited free-flight operations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Damping Effect of Fibrous Acoustical Treatments

The damping effect that is observed when a fibrous acoustical treatment is applied to a thin metal panel typical of automotive structures has been modeled by using three independent techniques. In the first two methods the fibrous treatment was modeled by using the limp frame formulation proposed by Bolton et al., while the third method makes use of a general poro-elastic model based on the Biot theory. All three methods have been found to provide consistent predictions that are in excellent agreement with one another. An examination of the numerical results shows that the structural damping effect results primarily from the suppression of the nearfield acoustical motion within the fibrous treatment, that motion being closely coupled with the vibration of the base panel. The observed damping effect is similar in magnitude to that provided by constrained layer dampers having the same mass per unit area as the fibrous layer.
Technical Paper

Lyophilization for Water Recovery

An energy-efficient lyophilization technique is being developed to recover water from highly contaminated spacecraft waste streams. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain water. To operate in microgravity, and to minimize power consumption, thermoelectric heat pumps can be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer is described and used to generate energy use and processing rate estimates.
Technical Paper

Integrated Use of Data Mining and Statistical Analysis Methods to Analyze Air Traffic Delays

Linear regression is the primary data analysis method used in the development of air traffic delay models. When the data being studied does indeed have an underlying linear model, this approach would produce the best-fitting model as expected. However, it has been argued by ATM researchers [Wieland2005, Evans2004] that the underlying delay models are primarily non-linear. Furthermore, the delays being modeled often depend not only on the observable independent variables being studied but also on other variables not being considered. The traditional regression approach alone may not be best suited to study these type of problems. In this paper, we propose an alternate methodology based on partitioning the data using statistical and decision tree learning methods. We then show the utility of this model in a variety of different ATM modeling problems.
Technical Paper

Idealized Modeling and Analysis of the Shuttle Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Data

Some selected segments of the ascent and the on-orbit data from the Space Shuttle flight, STS114, as well as some selected laboratory test article data have been analyzed using wavelets, power spectrum and autocorrelation function. Additionally, a simple approximate noise test was performed on these data segments to confirm the presence or absence of white noise behavior in the data. This study was initially directed at characterizing the on-orbit background against which a signature due to an impact during on-orbit operation could be identified. The laboratory data analyzed here mimic low velocity impact that the Orbiter may be subjected to during the very initial stages of ascent.
Technical Paper

Balloon Launched UAV with Nested Wing for Near Space Applications

There has always been, from the very first UAV, a need for providing cost-effective methods of deploying unmanned aircraft systems at high altitudes. Missions for UAVs at high altitudes are used to conduct atmospheric research, perform global mapping missions, collect remote sensing data, and establish long range communications networks. The team of Gevers Aircraft, Technology Management Group, and Purdue University have designed an innovative balloon launched UAV for these near space applications. A UAV (Payload Return Vehicle) with a nested morphing wing was designed in order to meet the challenges of high altitude flight, and long range and endurance without the need for descent rate control with rockets or a feathering mode.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Crop-Waste Loads for Solid-Waste Processing

In long-duration, closed human habitats in space that include crop growth, one challenge that is faced while designing a candidate waste processor is the composition of solid-waste loads, which include human waste, packaging and food-processing materials, crop spoilage, and plant residues. In this work, a new modeling tool is developed to characterize crop residues and food wastes based on diet in order to support the design of solid-waste technologies for closed systems. The model predicts amounts of crop residues and food wastes due to food processing, crop harvests, and edible spoilage. To support the design of solid-waste technologies, the generation of crop residues and food wastes was characterized for a 600-day mission to Mars using integrated menu, crop, and waste models. The three sources of plant residues and food waste are identified to be food processors, crop harvests, and edible spoilage.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of an Electric Warship Integrated Engineering Plant

A layered approach to the simulation of dynamically interdependent systems is presented. In particular, the approach is applied to the integrated engineering plant of a notional all-electric warship. The models and parameters of the notional ship are presented herein. This approach is used to study disruptions to the integrated engineering plant caused by anti-ship missiles. Example simulation results establish the effectiveness of this approach in examining the propagation of faults and cascading failures throughout a dynamically interdependent system of systems.
Technical Paper

Automated Evolutionary Design of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Power System Using Distributed Heterogeneous Optimization

The optimal design of hybrid-electric vehicle power systems poses a challenge to the system analyst, who is presented with a host of parameters to fine-tune, along with stringent performance criteria and multiple design objectives to meet. Herein, a methodology is presented to transform such a design task into a constrained multi-objective optimization problem, which is solved using a distributed evolutionary algorithm. A power system model representative of a series hybrid-electric vehicle is considered as a paradigm to support the illustration of the proposed methodology, with particular emphasis on the power system's time-domain performance.
Technical Paper

Real-time Thermal Observer for Electric Machines

A temperature estimation algorithm (thermal observer) that provides accurate estimates of the thermal states of an electric machine in real time is presented. The thermal observer is designed to be a Kalman filter that combines thermal state predictions from a lumped-parameter thermal model of the electric machine with temperature measurements from a single external temperature sensor. An analysis based on the error covariance matrix of the Kalman filter is presented to guide the selection of the best sensor location. The thermal observer performance is demonstrated using a 3.8 kW permanent-magnet machine. Comparison of the thermal observer estimates and the actual temperatures demonstrate that this approach can provide accurate knowledge of the machine's thermal states despite modeling uncertainty and unknown initial machine thermal states.
Technical Paper

Innovative Concepts for Planetary EVA Access

This study introduces several new concepts for suited EVA astronaut ingress/egress (departure and return) from a pressurized planetary surface habitat, based on use of a rear-entry suit and a suit lock or suitport. We provide insight into key operational aspects and integration issues, as well as the results of a requirements analysis and risk assessment of the concepts. The risk assessment included hazard analysis, hazard mitigation techniques, failure mode assessment, and operational risk assessment. Also included are performance and mass estimates for the egress concepts, and concepts for integration of the egress concepts with potential planetary habitat designs.
Technical Paper

Digital Electrohydraulic Control for Constant-Deceleration Emergency Braking

A digital electrohydraulic control system for emergency braking is designed, simulated, built, and tested. First, a dynamic model of the system was developed with Matlab Simulink. The parameters are obtained experimentally. Feedback gains are obtained by tuning the model. Then, the digital controller is implemented on an industrial personal computer programmed in Turbo C++. The control strategy is an improved digital version of the PID control. The key element in the control of the brake was an electro-hydraulic proportional pressure valve. Experiments show that the control system successfully realizes constant-deceleration emergency brake within mine safety rules. The same hardware can be reprogrammed for various hoists, different load conditions, and different control objectives. Although the test was conducted on a mine hoist brake, the control system can be applied to most vehicles.
Technical Paper

Designing User-Interfaces for the Cockpit: Five Common Design Errors and How to Avoid Them

The efficiency and robustness of pilot-automation interaction is a function of the volume of memorized action sequences required to use the automation to perform mission tasks. This paper describes a model of pilot cognition for the evaluation of the cognitive usability of cockpit automation. Five common cockpit automation design errors are discussed with examples.
Technical Paper

Polytopic Modeling and Lyapunov Stability Analysis of Power Electronics Systems

Power electronics based power distribution systems are inherently nonlinear often behaving as constant power loads. Stability analysis of such systems typically is limited to local behavior. Herein polytopic modeling techniques are presented. Classification of polytopic model equilibrium points is made and methods of determining uniform asymptotic stability are presented.
Technical Paper

Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems Using Market-Based Control

As a part of the systems modeling research at NASA Ames Research Center, the use of a market-based control strategy to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system (LSS) is examined. Individual subsystem control agents determine power demands and develop bids to ‘buy’ or to ‘sell’ power. A higher level controller collects the bids and power requests from the individual agents, monitors overall power usage, and manages surges or spikes. The higher level controller conducts an ‘auction’ to set a trading price and then allocates power to qualified subsystems. The auction occurs every twelve minutes within the simulated LSS. This market-based power reallocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. Therefore, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes that meet certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.
Technical Paper

Model-based Development for Event-driven Applications using MATLAB: Audio Playback Case Study

Audio playbacks are mechanisms which read data from a storage medium and produce commands and signals which an audio system turns into music. Playbacks are constantly changed to meet market demands, requiring that the control software be updated quickly and efficiently. This paper reviews a 12 month project using the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow environment for model-based development, system simulation, autocode generation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) verification for playbacks which read music CDs or MP3 disks. Our team began with a “clean slate” approach to playback architecture, and demonstrated working units running production-ready code. This modular, layered architecture enables rapid development and verification of new playback mechanisms, thereby reducing the time needed to evaluate playback mechanisms and integrate into a complete infotainment system.
Technical Paper

Indirect Measurement of Tire Slip and Understeer/Oversteer

This paper presents a method for indirect measurement of tire slip angles from chassis acceleration, yaw rate, and steer angle measurements. The chassis is assumed to be rigid so that acceleration data can be integrated to estimate velocities of the front and rear of the vehicle, from which slip angles can be predicted. The difference in front and rear slip angles is indicative of vehicle oversteer/understeer. Understeer data can then be correlated with position on the track to better understand vehicle handling behavior, aiding the tuning process. The technique is presented, and shown to work well with simulated data, even when the data is corrupted with up to 20% noise. Therefore, the inversion process presented here is theoretically sound. However, when the technique is applied to measured data from race cars, it is shown to be inaccurate. One suspected problem is the difficulty of getting accurate yaw rate data.
Technical Paper

A Novel Suspended Liner Test Apparatus for Friction and Side Force Measurement with Corresponding Modeling

An experimental apparatus and a numerical model have been designed and developed to examine the lubrication condition and frictional losses at the piston and cylinder interface. The experimental apparatus utilizes components from a single cylinder, ten horsepower engine in a novel suspended liner arrangement. The test rig has been specifically designed to reduce the number of operating variables while utilizing actual components and geometry. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with experimental measurements and provide further insight into the sources of frictional losses. The results demonstrate the effects of speed and viscosity on the overall friction losses at the piston and cylinder liner interface. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results show good agreement.