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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Influence on Atomization and Spray Propagation Using an Outwardly Opening GDI-Injector

2010-10-25
2010-01-2275
One fundamental subprocess for the utilization of alternative fuels for automotive applications is the in-cylinder mixture formation and therefore the fuel injection, which largely affects the combustion efficiency of internal combustion engines. This study analyzes the influence of the physical properties of various model-fuels on atomization and spray propagation at temperatures and pressures matching the operating conditions of today's gasoline engines. The experiments were carried out using an outwardly opening, piezo-driven gasoline injector. In order to cover a wide range of potential fuels the following liquids were investigated: Alcohols (Ethanol, Butanol and Decanol), alkanes (Iso-Octane, Dodecane and Heptane) and one furane (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol). The macroscopic spray propagation of the fuels was investigated using shadowgraphy. For complementary spray characterization droplet sizes and velocities were measured using Phase-Doppler Anemometry.
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0288
Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Combusting Split-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0034
Multiple-injection strategies are widely used in DI diesel engines. However, the interaction of the injection pulses is not yet fully understood. In this work, a split injection into a combustion vessel is studied by multiple optical imaging diagnostics. The vessel provides quiescent high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions. A common-rail injector which is equipped with a three-hole nozzle is used. The spray is visualized by Mie scattering. First and second stage of ignition are probed by formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence imaging, respectively. In addition formation of soot is characterized by both laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity imaging, showing that low-sooting conditions are established. These qualitative diagnostics yield ensemble-averaged, two-dimensional, time-resolved distributions of the corresponding quantities.
Journal Article

Optimization of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass

2013-09-08
2013-24-0059
In order to thoroughly investigate and improve the path from biofuel production to combustion, the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Since then, a variety of fuel candidates have been investigated. In particular, 2-methyl tetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) has shown excellent performance w.r.t. the particulate (PM) / NOx trade-off [1]. Unfortunately, the long ignition delay results in increased HC-, CO- and noise emissions. To overcome this problem, the addition of di-n-butylether (DNBE, CN ∼ 100) to 2-MTHF was analyzed. By blending these two in different volumetric shares, the effects of the different mixture formation and combustion characteristics, especially on the HC-, CO- and noise emissions, have been carefully analyzed. In addition, the overall emission performance has been compared to EN590 diesel.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline Type Fuels Using Larger Size Nozzle and Higher Compression Ratio in a Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2539
If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Spray Characteristics of Di-n-Butyl Ether (DNBE) as an Oxygenated Compound in Diesel Fuel

2010-05-05
2010-01-1502
Increasing concern for the environment and the impending scarcity of fossil fuels requires continued development in hydrocarbon combustion science. For compression-ignition engines, adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel can reduce noise, soot formation, and unburned hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing thermal efficiency. In order to reliably model and design compression-ignition engines to use new fuel blends, accurate spray characteristic data is required. In this study, the spray characteristics of various blends of the oxygenated compound di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) with standard EN590 Diesel fuel are presented, including spray cone angle and spray penetration length for both liquid and gas phases. The experiments were conducted in a spray chamber at ambient conditions of 50 bar and 800 K, simulating TDC conditions in a Diesel engine. Injection pressures were varied from 700-1600 bar.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for the Autoignition of Dimethyl Ether

2010-10-25
2010-01-2108
A reduced kinetic reaction mechanism for the autoignition of dimethyl ether is presented in this paper. Dimethyl ether has proven to be one of the most attractive alternatives to traditional fossil fuels for compression ignition engines. It can either be produced from biomass or from fossil oil. For dimethyl ether, Fischer et al. (Int. J.Chem. Kinet. 32 ( 12 ) (2000) 713-740) proposed a detailed reaction mechanism consisting of 79 species and 351 elementary reactions. In the present work, this detailed mechanism is systematically reduced to 31 species and 49 reactions. The reduced mechanism is discussed in detail with special emphasis on the high temperature thermal decomposition of dimethyl ether and on the fuel specific depleting reactions, which produce the methoxymethyl radical. In addition, a reaction pathway analysis for low temperature combustion is applied, where hydroperoxy-methylformate is found to be the dominating parameter for the low temperature regime.
Technical Paper

Optimised Neat Ethanol Engine with Stratified Combustion at Part-load; Particle Emissions, Efficiency and Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0254
A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
Journal Article

Towards Model-Based Identification of Biofuels for Compression Ignition Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1593
Depleting fossil resources, a constantly rising energy demand and worries about greenhouse gas emissions force society to explore novel concepts for future mobile propulsion. In the context of biofuels, the identification of novel, sustainably producible, tailored molecules meeting the property specifications derived from advanced engine combustion concepts therefore constitutes a major objective. Due to the tremendous amount of possible molecular structures, solely experimental search strategies are infeasible and highlight the need for a computer-aided biofuel identification framework. To this end, a holistic approach for deriving truly predictive Quantitative-Structure-Property-Relationships (QSPRs) for engine-relevant fuel properties is presented. Such QSPRs are combined with a rigorous generation of molecular structures aiming at identification of single-compound fuel candidates for use in compression ignition (CI) engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Droplet Size and Velocity in Clustered Diesel Sprays under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2240
An experimental study on the interaction of sprays from clustered orifices is presented. Droplet size and velocity information has been gained by means of Phase Doppler Anemometry for different nozzle configurations varying the diverging opening angle between clustered sprays from 0° to 15°. These nozzles were investigated under high-pressure (50 bar) and high-temperature (800 K) conditions in a pressure chamber and the results are compared to two standard nozzles with flow rates corresponding either to the flow rate of the cluster nozzle configuration or half of the flow rate of this configuration. Two injection pressures, 600 bar and 1100 bar, were used to investigate all nozzles. This investigation completes the characterization of sprays from the cluster nozzles presented in an earlier work. Findings obtained therein were used to choose the measurement procedure for the present investigation and also to determine the spray width in order to obtain the spray angle.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Ambient Conditions on the Nozzle Exit Spray of an Outwardly Opening GDI Injector

2012-04-16
2012-01-0396
Spray penetration and mixture formation in GDI engines are crucial to a reliable ignition and the subsequent combustion. For the prediction of the mixture formation process, computational fluid dynamic simulations are applied. Therefore, details about the nozzle exit conditions are essential, either as boundary conditions to be set, or to validate the numerical results. This paper presents experimental results on the influence of boundary conditions on the spray structure at the nozzle exit of a GDI injector. The injector investigated is an outwardly opening piezo injector, generating a hollow cone spray with a string structure. The distribution of the strings (the so-called "string structure") is needed for the starting conditions of the computational fluid dynamic simulations, as the origin of the strings is unresolved so far.
Technical Paper

Traffic Situation Assessment and Intervention Strategy of a Collision Avoidance System based on Galileo Satellite Positioning

2012-04-16
2012-01-0280
Nowadays, collision avoidance systems (CAS) are an intensive research topic since the majority of all traffic accidents are collisions that are caused due to inattention or unadjusted driving behavior of the driver. Up to date prototypic CAS are based on on-board environmental sensors, such as camera or radar systems, that scan the vehicle's surrounding environment in order to assess the situation's hazardousness. The functionality of the used sensors under varying environmental conditions and the limited sensor covering area require an enormous effort to ensure a reliable detection of obstacles, and thus limit the application of the systems. In order to expand the operating field of such systems, a Galileo-based CAS will be developed within the project ‘Galileo above’ (application centre for ground based traffic).
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation Study on Unsteady Effects in a Statistically Stationary SI Engine Port Flow

2015-04-14
2015-01-0373
Although spark-ignited engines have a considerable development history, the relevant flow physics and geometry design implications are still not fully understood. One reason is the lack of experimental and numerical methods with sufficiently high resolution or capabilities of capturing stochastic phenomena which could be used as part of the development cycle. More recently, Large-Eddy simulation (LES) has been identified as a promising technique to establish a better understanding of in-cylinder flow variations. However, simulations of engine configurations are challenging due to resolution as well as modeling requirements and computational cost for these unsteady multi-physics problems. LES on full engine geometries can even be prohibitively expensive. For this reason, the size of the computational LES domain is here reduced to the region of physical interest and boundary conditions are obtained from a RANS simulation of the whole experimental flow domain.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

2015-04-14
2015-01-0399
In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

A New Euler/Lagrange Approach for Multiphase Simulations of a Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0949
Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and low emission levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is an important topic of today's injection system research. Although the operating conditions of GDI injectors are simpler from a numerical point of view because of smaller Reynolds and Weber numbers compared to Diesel injection systems, accurate simulations of the breakup in the vicinity of the nozzle are very challenging. Combined with the complications of experimental techniques that could be applied inside the nozzle and at the nozzle exit, this is the reason for the lack of understanding the primary breakup behavior of current GDI injectors.
Technical Paper

Development of a Self-Energizing Electro-Hydraulic Brake (SEHB)

2007-10-30
2007-01-4236
A new hydraulic brake utilizing a self-energizing effect is developed at the Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS). In addition to a conventional hydraulic braking actuator, it features a supporting cylinder conducting the braking forces into the vehicle undercarriage. The braking force pressurizes the fluid in the supporting cylinder and is the power source for pressure control of the actuator. The new brake needs no external hydraulic power supply. The only input is an electrical braking force reference signal from a superior control unit. One major advantage of the SEHB concept is the direct control of the actual braking torque despite friction coefficient changes. The prototype design, presented in this paper, is done in two phases. The first prototype is based on an automotive brake caliper. It is set up to gain practical experience about the hydraulic self-energisation and to prepare the laboratory automation environment.
Technical Paper

Efficient Recuperation of Kinetic Energy - Hybrid Versus Hydrostatic Approach

2007-10-30
2007-01-4153
This paper analyzes different concepts for storage and recuperation of kinetic energy during braking operation in a forklift truck application. The reduction of fuel consumption is one of the challenges for on and off-road vehicles. Starting from a conventional hydrostatic transmission, secondary hydraulic control and a hybrid solution are investigated. Wasting kinetic energy during braking operation of mobile working machines in cyclic applications and converting it into heat energy instead of reusable energy is a very inefficient principle still used in industry. Rising energy costs, enhanced government guidelines and increased environmental awareness require more efficient drive concepts for the next decades. Recuperation of kinetic energy during braking operation provides the opportunity of increasing the efficiency of mobile working machines. Efficient recuperation of kinetic energy requires a proper application and a low-loss system design.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Spray Angle on Pollutant Formation and Combustion Efficiency for a PCCI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1445
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, a low combustion temperature process is considered as one of the most important possibilities to achieve very small emissions and optimum performance. To reduce NOx and Soot strongly, it is necessary to achieve a homogenization of the mixture in order to avoid the higher local temperatures which are responsible for the NOx formation [1]. Through the homogenization it is also possible to obtain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in order to significantly reduce the Soot emissions. One way to achieve this homogeneous condition is to start injection very early together with the use of higher EGR rates. The direct effect of these conditions cause a longer ignition delay (this is the time between start of the injection and auto-ignition during physical and chemical sub processes such as fuel atomization, evaporation, fuel air mixing and chemical pre-reactions take place) so that the mixture formation has more time to achieve a homogeneous state.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

2009-11-02
2009-01-2765
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance.
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