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Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity Measurements in Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions by Laser Flow Tagging

The droplet velocity is an important parameter for breakup, evaporation, and combustion of Diesel sprays, but it is very difficult to measure it by widely used laser diagnostic techniques like PDA, PIV and LCV under realistic high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This is basically caused by laser beam steering and multiple scattering of light due to very high droplet densities, in particular close to the nozzle. It was demonstrated recently, that these problems can be greatly reduced by the laser flow tagging (LFT) technique. For this purpose, the model fuel is doped with a phosphorescent tracer. A number of droplet groups within the spray are tagged by illuminating them with focused beams of a pulsed laser, and their velocities are measured by recording the phosphorescence twice after each laser pulse using a double-frame ICCD.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Ambient Conditions on the Nozzle Exit Spray of an Outwardly Opening GDI Injector

Spray penetration and mixture formation in GDI engines are crucial to a reliable ignition and the subsequent combustion. For the prediction of the mixture formation process, computational fluid dynamic simulations are applied. Therefore, details about the nozzle exit conditions are essential, either as boundary conditions to be set, or to validate the numerical results. This paper presents experimental results on the influence of boundary conditions on the spray structure at the nozzle exit of a GDI injector. The injector investigated is an outwardly opening piezo injector, generating a hollow cone spray with a string structure. The distribution of the strings (the so-called "string structure") is needed for the starting conditions of the computational fluid dynamic simulations, as the origin of the strings is unresolved so far.
Technical Paper

Simulating and Reducing Noise Excited in an EV Powertrain by a Switched Reluctance Machine

The noise performance of fully electric vehicles is essential to ensure that they gain market acceptance. This can be a challenge for several reasons. Firstly, there is no masking from the internal combustion engine. Next, there is pressure to move to cost-efficient motor designs such as Switched Reluctance Motors, which have worse vibro-acoustic behaviour than their Permanent Magnet counterparts. Finally, power-dense, higher speed motors run closer fundamental frequency to the structural resonances of the system [1]. Experience has shown that this challenge is frequently not met. Reputable suppliers have designed and developed their “quiet” subsystems to state of the art levels, only to discover that the assembled E-powertrain is unacceptably noisy. The paper describes the process and arising results for the noise simulation of the complete powertrain.
Technical Paper

A New Euler/Lagrange Approach for Multiphase Simulations of a Multi-Hole GDI Injector

Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and low emission levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is an important topic of today's injection system research. Although the operating conditions of GDI injectors are simpler from a numerical point of view because of smaller Reynolds and Weber numbers compared to Diesel injection systems, accurate simulations of the breakup in the vicinity of the nozzle are very challenging. Combined with the complications of experimental techniques that could be applied inside the nozzle and at the nozzle exit, this is the reason for the lack of understanding the primary breakup behavior of current GDI injectors.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation Study on Unsteady Effects in a Statistically Stationary SI Engine Port Flow

Although spark-ignited engines have a considerable development history, the relevant flow physics and geometry design implications are still not fully understood. One reason is the lack of experimental and numerical methods with sufficiently high resolution or capabilities of capturing stochastic phenomena which could be used as part of the development cycle. More recently, Large-Eddy simulation (LES) has been identified as a promising technique to establish a better understanding of in-cylinder flow variations. However, simulations of engine configurations are challenging due to resolution as well as modeling requirements and computational cost for these unsteady multi-physics problems. LES on full engine geometries can even be prohibitively expensive. For this reason, the size of the computational LES domain is here reduced to the region of physical interest and boundary conditions are obtained from a RANS simulation of the whole experimental flow domain.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

Method for Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Content of Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units

Auto transformer rectifier units (ATRUs) are commonly used in aircraft applications such as electric actuation for harmonic mitigation due to their high reliability and relative low cost. However, those components and the magnetic filter components associated to it are the major contributors to the overall size and weight of the system. Optimization of the magnetic components is essential in order to minimize weight and size, which are major market drivers in aerospace industry today. This requires knowledge of the harmonic content of the current. This can be obtained by simulation, but the process is slow. In order to enable fast and efficient design space exploration of optimal solutions, an algebraic calculation process is proposed in this paper for multi-pulse ATRUs (e.g. 12-pulse and 18-pulse rectifiers), starting from existing solution proposed for 6 pulse rectifier in the literature.
Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Modelling of 3 Phase Voltage Source Converters in Modelica Language

This paper will present a multi-domain (electrical and thermal) model of a three phase voltage source converter and its implementation in Modelica language. An averaged model is utilised for the electrical domain, and a power balance method is used for linking the DC and AC sides. The thermal domain focuses in deriving the converter losses by deriving the analytical equations of the space vector modulation to derive a function for the duty cycle of each converter leg. With this, the conduction and switching losses are calculated for the individual switches and diodes, without having to model their actual switching behaviour. The model is very fast to simulate, as no switching events are needed, and allows obtaining the simulation of the electrical and thermal behaviour in the same simulation package..
Technical Paper

Automation of Road Vehicles Using V2X: An Application to Intersection Automation

Today, automated vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, we are currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X-based applications based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC). Moreover, the novel application intersection priority management (IPM) is part of the research project. IPM aims at automating intersections in such a way that vehicles can pass safely and even more efficiently without the use of traffic lights or signs.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Approximation Formula for the Calculation of Methane/Air Laminar Burning Velocities Used in Engine Combustion Models

Especially for internal combustion engine simulations, various combustion models rely on the laminar burning velocity. With respect to computational time needed for CFD, the calculation of laminar burning velocities using a detailed chemical mechanism can be replaced by incorporation of approximation formulas, based on rate-ratio asymptotics. This study revisits an existing analytical approximation formula [1]. It investigates applicable temperature, pressure, and equivalence ratio ranges with special focus on engine combustion conditions. The fuel chosen here is methane and mixtures are composed of methane and air. The model performance to calculate the laminar burning velocity are compared with calculated laminar burning velocities using existing state of the art detailed chemical mechanisms, the GRI Mech 3.0 [2], the ITV RWTH [3], and the Aramco mechanism [4].
Technical Paper

Development of a Self-Energizing Electro-Hydraulic Brake (SEHB)

A new hydraulic brake utilizing a self-energizing effect is developed at the Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS). In addition to a conventional hydraulic braking actuator, it features a supporting cylinder conducting the braking forces into the vehicle undercarriage. The braking force pressurizes the fluid in the supporting cylinder and is the power source for pressure control of the actuator. The new brake needs no external hydraulic power supply. The only input is an electrical braking force reference signal from a superior control unit. One major advantage of the SEHB concept is the direct control of the actual braking torque despite friction coefficient changes. The prototype design, presented in this paper, is done in two phases. The first prototype is based on an automotive brake caliper. It is set up to gain practical experience about the hydraulic self-energisation and to prepare the laboratory automation environment.
Technical Paper

Laminar Burning Velocity of Market Type Gasoline Surrogates as a Performance Indicator in Internal Combustion Engines

The laminar burning velocity is an important parameter in various combustion models for engine simulations. With respect to computational time for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full system engine simulations, the calculation of laminar burning velocities using a detailed chemical mechanism can be replaced by incorporation of approximation formulas, based on rate-ratio asymptotics. In the present study, a work flow is developed to analyze the engine efficiency performance of spark ignition engines with respect to the laminar burning velocity as a fundamental fuel property. Firstly, methane is used as a fuel to assess practicability of the approach. The procedure is subsequently adopted for market type gasoline surrogates, RON95 and RON100. Detailed chemistry calculations are carried out for the three target fuels using existing state of the art mechanisms, the Aramco [Zhou et al., Proc. Combust. Inst., pp. 403-411, 2017] and the ITV RWTH mechanism [Cai et al., Combust.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Combusting Split-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

Multiple-injection strategies are widely used in DI diesel engines. However, the interaction of the injection pulses is not yet fully understood. In this work, a split injection into a combustion vessel is studied by multiple optical imaging diagnostics. The vessel provides quiescent high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions. A common-rail injector which is equipped with a three-hole nozzle is used. The spray is visualized by Mie scattering. First and second stage of ignition are probed by formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence imaging, respectively. In addition formation of soot is characterized by both laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity imaging, showing that low-sooting conditions are established. These qualitative diagnostics yield ensemble-averaged, two-dimensional, time-resolved distributions of the corresponding quantities.
Journal Article

A Sectoral Approach to Modelling Wall Heat Transfer in Exhaust Ports and Manifolds for Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

A new approach is presented to modelling wall heat transfer in the exhaust port and manifold within 1D gas exchange simulation to ensure a precise calculation of thermal exhaust enthalpy. One of the principal characteristics of this approach is the partition of the exhaust process in a blow-down and a push-out phase. In addition to the split in two phases, the exhaust system is divided into several sections to consider changes in heat transfer characteristics downstream the exhaust valves. Principally, the convective heat transfer is described by the characteristic numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl. However, the phase individual correlation coefficients are derived from 3D CFD investigations of the flow in the exhaust system combined with Low-Re turbulence modelling. Furthermore, heat losses on the valve and the seat ring surfaces are considered by an empirical model approach.
Journal Article

Engine in the Loop: Closed Loop Test Bench Control with Real-Time Simulation

The complexity of automobile powertrains grows continuously. At the same time, development time and budget are limited. Shifting development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) increases the efficiency by utilizing test benches instead of prototype vehicles (road-to-rig approach). Early system verification of powertrain components requires a closed-loop coupling to real-time simulation models, comparable to hardware-in-the-loop testing (HiL). The international research project Advanced Co-Simulation Open System Architecture (ACOSAR) has the goal to develop a non-proprietary communication architecture between real-time and non-real-time systems in order to speed up the commissioning process and to decrease the monetary effort for testing and validation. One major outcome will be a generic interface for coupling different simulation tools and real-time systems (e.g. HiL simulators or test benches).
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.