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Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1918
This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Soot Formation of Sprays from Cluster Nozzles for DI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0855
One of the basic topics in the design of new injection systems for DI Diesel engines is to decrease the soot emissions. A promising approach to minimize soot production are nozzles with clustered holes. A basic idea of the Cluster Configuration (CC) nozzles is to prevent a fuel rich area in the center of the flame where most of the soot is produced, and to minimize the overall soot formation in this way. For this purpose each hole of a standard nozzle is replaced by two smaller holes. The diameter of the smaller holes is chosen so that the flow rate of all nozzles should be equal. The basic strategy of the cluster nozzles is to provide a better primary break up and therefore a better mixture formation caused by the smaller nozzle holes, but a comparable penetration length of the vapor phase due to merging of the sprays. Three possible arrangements of the clustered holes are investigated in this study. Both the cluster angle and the orientation to the injector axis are varied.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Shaping Investigations on a Small – Bore DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0850
So far, the effect of injection rate shaping on the diesel combustion in small-bore DI diesel engines has not been extensively investigated, especially at high part load conditions with high EGR rates. The benefit of injection rate shaping is already verified for heavy duty engines at high load conditions with and without EGR. For this investigation, single cylinder engine investigations were conducted at the VKA / RWTH Aachen University. In order to meet the future NOx legislation limits like US-Tier2Bin5 it is crucial to reduce NOx especially at the high load points of the certification cycles, as FTP75 or US06. For the single cylinder investigations two part load points were chosen, which have relevance for the mentioned certification cycles. The experimental work focuses on different rate shapes as rectangular (Common-Rail type), ramp and boot shape at high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Influence on Atomization and Spray Propagation Using an Outwardly Opening GDI-Injector

2010-10-25
2010-01-2275
One fundamental subprocess for the utilization of alternative fuels for automotive applications is the in-cylinder mixture formation and therefore the fuel injection, which largely affects the combustion efficiency of internal combustion engines. This study analyzes the influence of the physical properties of various model-fuels on atomization and spray propagation at temperatures and pressures matching the operating conditions of today's gasoline engines. The experiments were carried out using an outwardly opening, piezo-driven gasoline injector. In order to cover a wide range of potential fuels the following liquids were investigated: Alcohols (Ethanol, Butanol and Decanol), alkanes (Iso-Octane, Dodecane and Heptane) and one furane (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol). The macroscopic spray propagation of the fuels was investigated using shadowgraphy. For complementary spray characterization droplet sizes and velocities were measured using Phase-Doppler Anemometry.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Spray Characteristics of Di-n-Butyl Ether (DNBE) as an Oxygenated Compound in Diesel Fuel

2010-05-05
2010-01-1502
Increasing concern for the environment and the impending scarcity of fossil fuels requires continued development in hydrocarbon combustion science. For compression-ignition engines, adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel can reduce noise, soot formation, and unburned hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing thermal efficiency. In order to reliably model and design compression-ignition engines to use new fuel blends, accurate spray characteristic data is required. In this study, the spray characteristics of various blends of the oxygenated compound di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) with standard EN590 Diesel fuel are presented, including spray cone angle and spray penetration length for both liquid and gas phases. The experiments were conducted in a spray chamber at ambient conditions of 50 bar and 800 K, simulating TDC conditions in a Diesel engine. Injection pressures were varied from 700-1600 bar.
Journal Article

Optimization of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass

2013-09-08
2013-24-0059
In order to thoroughly investigate and improve the path from biofuel production to combustion, the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Since then, a variety of fuel candidates have been investigated. In particular, 2-methyl tetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) has shown excellent performance w.r.t. the particulate (PM) / NOx trade-off [1]. Unfortunately, the long ignition delay results in increased HC-, CO- and noise emissions. To overcome this problem, the addition of di-n-butylether (DNBE, CN ∼ 100) to 2-MTHF was analyzed. By blending these two in different volumetric shares, the effects of the different mixture formation and combustion characteristics, especially on the HC-, CO- and noise emissions, have been carefully analyzed. In addition, the overall emission performance has been compared to EN590 diesel.
Technical Paper

Virtual Transmission Evaluation Using an Engine-in-the-Loop Test Facility

2018-04-03
2018-01-1361
This paper describes an approach to reduce development costs and time by frontloading of engineering tasks and even starting calibration tasks already in the early component conception phases of a vehicle development program. To realize this, the application of a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology is required. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time, is achieved with the introduction of highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulators) which provide the appropriate response of the hardware components. This paper presents results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Accurate Mean Value Process Models for Model-Based Engine Control Concepts by Means of Hybrid Modeling

2019-04-02
2019-01-1178
Advanced powertrains for modern vehicles require the optimization of conventional combustion engines in combination with tailored electrification and vehicle connectivity strategies. The resulting systems and their control devices feature many degrees of freedom with a large number of available adjustment parameters. This obviously presents major challenges to the development of the corresponding powertrain control logics. Hence, the identification of an optimal system calibration is a non-trivial task. To address this situation, physics-based control approaches are evolving and successively replacing conventional map-based control strategies in order to handle more complex powertrain topologies. Physics-based control approaches enable a significant reduction in calibration effort, and also improve the control robustness.
Journal Article

Fuel Cell System Development: A Strong Influence on FCEV Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-1305
In this article, the development challenges of a fuel cell system are explained using the example of the BREEZE! fuel cell range extender (FC-REX) applied in an FEV Liiona. The FEV Liiona is a battery electric vehicle based on a Fiat 500 developed by FEV. The BREEZE! system is the first applied 30 kW low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (LT PEM) fuel cell system in the subcompact vehicle class. Due to the highly integrated system approach and dry cathode operation, a compact design of the range extender module with a system power density of 0.45 kW/l can be achieved so that the vehicle interior including trunk remains completely usable. System development for fuel cells significantly influences performance, efficiency, package, durability, and required maintenance effort of a fuel cell electric powertrain. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation, the fuel cell system has to be supplied with sufficient amounts of air, hydrogen, and coolant flows.
Technical Paper

Combined Simulations and OH-Chemiluminescence Measurements of the Combustion Process using Different Fuels under Diesel-Engine like Conditions

2007-01-23
2007-01-0020
The influence of different fuels and injection pressures on the flame lift-off length (LOL), as well as the combustion structure under quiescent conditions in a heated high-pressure vessel were experimentally investigated using OH chemiluminescence measurements. This data was used to validate the newly developed G-equation coupled with MRIF (G-MRIF) model, which was designed to describe the lifted Diesel combustion process. The achieved results are very promising and could be used as a tool to apply this combustion mode into Diesel engines. Furthermore these measurements were used to validate the approach of a new combustion model, which was developed using former OH chemiluminescence measurements by the authors. Based on this approach the LOL is mainly determined by auto-ignition and therefore highly dependent on the cetane number. This model is presented in more detail within this work.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Spray Angle on Pollutant Formation and Combustion Efficiency for a PCCI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1445
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, a low combustion temperature process is considered as one of the most important possibilities to achieve very small emissions and optimum performance. To reduce NOx and Soot strongly, it is necessary to achieve a homogenization of the mixture in order to avoid the higher local temperatures which are responsible for the NOx formation [1]. Through the homogenization it is also possible to obtain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in order to significantly reduce the Soot emissions. One way to achieve this homogeneous condition is to start injection very early together with the use of higher EGR rates. The direct effect of these conditions cause a longer ignition delay (this is the time between start of the injection and auto-ignition during physical and chemical sub processes such as fuel atomization, evaporation, fuel air mixing and chemical pre-reactions take place) so that the mixture formation has more time to achieve a homogeneous state.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Multiple Injections on Pollutant Formation in a Common-Rail DI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1191
In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, multiple injection strategies are considered as one of the methodologies to achieve optimum performance and emission reduction. However, multiple injections open a whole new horizon of parameters which affect the combustion process. These parameters include the number of injection events, the duration between the starts of each injection event, the splitting of the total fuel mass on the different injection events, etc. In the present work, the influence of the number of injection events and the influence of the duration between the starts of each injection event on emission levels are investigated. Combustion and pollutant formation were experimentally investigated in a Common-Rail DI Diesel engine. The engine was operated at conventional part-load conditions with 2000 rpm, no external EGR, and an injected fuel mass of 15 mg/cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mixture Formation in Diesel Sprays under Quiescent Conditions using Raman, Mie and LIF Diagnostics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0945
Mixture formation plays an important role for combustion and pollution formation in Diesel sprays. In particular air/fuel ratio (AFR) and temperature of the mixture short before ignition are crucial for these processes. Thus, these two quantities were measured quantitatively using 1-d spontaneous Raman scattering in this work. In addition, 1-d and 2-d Mie scattering was applied to visualize the distribution of the fuel droplets. 1-d and 2-d laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was also used to measure oxygen and fuel in a qualitative way in this work. The common rail Diesel injector was installed in a combustion vessel, in order to provide nearly quiescent high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. N-decane was used as the fuel, because it is a commonly used model fuel for standard Diesel fuel. It was doped with three different tracers with different boiling points in consecutive experiments in the case of 2-d LIF measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimised Neat Ethanol Engine with Stratified Combustion at Part-load; Particle Emissions, Efficiency and Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0254
A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
Technical Paper

Simulating and Reducing Noise Excited in an EV Powertrain by a Switched Reluctance Machine

2014-06-30
2014-01-2069
The noise performance of fully electric vehicles is essential to ensure that they gain market acceptance. This can be a challenge for several reasons. Firstly, there is no masking from the internal combustion engine. Next, there is pressure to move to cost-efficient motor designs such as Switched Reluctance Motors, which have worse vibro-acoustic behaviour than their Permanent Magnet counterparts. Finally, power-dense, higher speed motors run closer fundamental frequency to the structural resonances of the system [1]. Experience has shown that this challenge is frequently not met. Reputable suppliers have designed and developed their “quiet” subsystems to state of the art levels, only to discover that the assembled E-powertrain is unacceptably noisy. The paper describes the process and arising results for the noise simulation of the complete powertrain.
Technical Paper

Development of a Self-Energizing Electro-Hydraulic Brake (SEHB)

2007-10-30
2007-01-4236
A new hydraulic brake utilizing a self-energizing effect is developed at the Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS). In addition to a conventional hydraulic braking actuator, it features a supporting cylinder conducting the braking forces into the vehicle undercarriage. The braking force pressurizes the fluid in the supporting cylinder and is the power source for pressure control of the actuator. The new brake needs no external hydraulic power supply. The only input is an electrical braking force reference signal from a superior control unit. One major advantage of the SEHB concept is the direct control of the actual braking torque despite friction coefficient changes. The prototype design, presented in this paper, is done in two phases. The first prototype is based on an automotive brake caliper. It is set up to gain practical experience about the hydraulic self-energisation and to prepare the laboratory automation environment.
Technical Paper

Lower Emissions in Commercial Diesel Engines through Waste Heat Recovery

2016-09-27
2016-01-8084
In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
Technical Paper

An Overview of VCR Technology and Its Effects on a Turbocharged DI Engine Fueled with Ethanol and Gasoline

2017-11-07
2017-36-0357
The possibility to vary compression ratio offers a new degree of freedom that may enable so far not exploited benefits for the combustion process especially for highly boosted spark ignited engines. Numerous approaches to enable a variable compression ratio (VCR) have been tried and tested in the past. Nevertheless, none of these systems reached series production because of several reasons, ranging from too much complexity and moveable parts to deep modification required on existing engine architectures and manufacturing lines. Instead, the approach of a variable length conrod (VCR conrod) could be the solution for integration in almost any type of engine with minor modifications. It is then considered by several OEMs as a promising candidate for midterm series production. This paper shows, firstly, a discussion of the benefits of a variable compression ratio system.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity Measurements in Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions by Laser Flow Tagging

2008-04-14
2008-01-0944
The droplet velocity is an important parameter for breakup, evaporation, and combustion of Diesel sprays, but it is very difficult to measure it by widely used laser diagnostic techniques like PDA, PIV and LCV under realistic high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This is basically caused by laser beam steering and multiple scattering of light due to very high droplet densities, in particular close to the nozzle. It was demonstrated recently, that these problems can be greatly reduced by the laser flow tagging (LFT) technique. For this purpose, the model fuel is doped with a phosphorescent tracer. A number of droplet groups within the spray are tagged by illuminating them with focused beams of a pulsed laser, and their velocities are measured by recording the phosphorescence twice after each laser pulse using a double-frame ICCD.
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