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Journal Article

Understanding of the Internal Crack Phenomenon inside Diesel Particulate Filter during Regeneration Part 1: Modeling and Experiments

2010-05-05
2010-01-1555
This study deals with a coupled experimental and modeling approach of Diesel Particulate Filter cracking. A coupled model (heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions) is used to predict the temperature field inside the filter during the regeneration steps. This model consists of assembled 1D models and is calibrated using a set of laboratory bench tests. In this set of experiments, laboratory scale filters are tested in different conditions (variation of the oxygen rate and gas flow) and axial/radial thermal gradient are recorded with the use of thermocouples. This model is used to build a second set of laboratory bench tests, which is dedicated to the understanding of the phenomena of Diesel Particulate Filter cracking.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2147
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of 30% Biodiesel Fuel on Soot Loading and Regeneration of a Catalytic DPF

2007-07-23
2007-01-2023
Biofuels are a renewable energy source. When used as extenders for transportation fuels, biofuels contribute to the global reduction of Green House Gas and CO2 emissions from the transport sector and to security and independence of energy supply. On a “Well to Wheel” basis they are much more CO2 efficient than conventional fossil fuels. All vehicles currently in circulation in Europe are capable of using 5 % biodiesel. The introduction of higher percentages biodiesel needs new specific standards and vehicle tests validation. The development of vehicles compatible with 30% biodiesel blends in diesel fuel includes the validation of each part of both engine and fuel vehicle systems to guarantee normal operation for the entire life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Exhaust Manifold Junction Geometry on its Fluid-Dynamic Behavior

2000-03-06
2000-01-0914
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on the exhaust junctions geometry. Twelve three-branch junctions of different geometry have been tested on a single cylinder engine. The parameters studied have been exhaust junction outlet-to-inlet diameter ratio, length, angle between inlet branches and the existence of a reed separating inlet branches. An analysis of the pressure waves amplitude (incident, reflected and transmitted) obtained from instantaneous pressure measurements in some locations around the junction has been carried out. The analysis of results shows that junction length has a low influence on its behavior. The ratio between inlet and outlet branches diameters increases both reflection and directionality (avoiding pressure wave transmission to the adjacent branch). The existence of a reed separating the inlet flows may increase directionality with moderate pressure losses if the throat area is not reduced.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

1998-02-23
980936
The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Journal Article

Control-Oriented Modeling of a LNT-SCR Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

2011-04-12
2011-01-1307
Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts (SCR) are two leading candidates for diesel NOx after-treatment. Each technology exhibits good properties to reduce efficiently diesel NOx emissions in order to match the forthcoming EURO 6 standards. NOx reduction in LNT is made through a two-step process. In normal (lean) mode, diesel engine exhausts NOx is stored into the NOx trap; then when necessary the engine runs rich during limited time to treat the stored NOx. This operating mode has the benefit of using onboard fuel as NOx reducer. But NOx trap solution is restrained by limited active temperature windows. On the other hand, NH₃-SCR catalysts operate in a wider range of temperature and do not contain precious metals. However, NH₃-SCR systems traditionally use urea-water solution as reducing agent, requiring thus additional infrastructure to supply the vehicles with enough reducer. These pros and cons are quite restrictive in classical LNT or NH₃-SCR architecture.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Influence of LPG (Autogas) Composition on the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of 3 Bi-Fuelled Renault Vehicles

1996-05-01
961170
Studies using a bi-fuelled (autogas/gasoline) Renault Laguna vehicle meeting °the 1996 European exhaust emission legislation has demonstrated that over the European test cycle at 25°C the LPG operated vehicle provides substantial benefits of reduced emissions compared to unleaded reference gasoline. At lower test temperatures (i.e. 5°C) even larger reduction in emissions have been observed. Lower CO (up to 95% at -5°C and 65% at 25°C), HC (90% at -5°C and 40% at 25°C) emissions and lower ozone HC reactivity have been observed and could all offer significant environmental air-quality benefits for LPG. Various autogas mixtures have been tested including 70/30, 30/70 and 49/30/21 (% mass propane / butane / propene). Results show that NOx emissions for this vehicle appear dependent on autogas composition. The two gas mixtures containing only 30% butane gave about 50% more NOx at +25°C than the 70% butane autogas mixture.
Technical Paper

Repeatability of Fine Particle Measurement of Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Exhaust Gas

2004-06-08
2004-01-1983
Four Diesel vehicles and two gasoline ones are used to determine the repeatability of the particle number and size measurements. Two analytical techniques are used: Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The influence of technology (Euro2 and Euro3, Diesel and gasoline vehicles, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)) and speed on the particle number and size is presented in the case of steady speeds and the European Driving Cycle (EDC). The repeatability of these measurements is determined at the entire particle distribution. The global 1.96*Standard Deviation (SD) of the median diameter, determined by SMPS, is 8 nm. The median diameter is difficult to be determined in several cases due to the flat profiles of the emitted particles. The global 1.96*Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of the particle number presents a U-like curve, with a minimum value (55-57%) at about 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Energy Management of a High Efficiency Hybrid Electric Automatic Transmission

2010-04-12
2010-01-1311
The energy management of a hybrid vehicle defines the vehicle power flow that minimizes fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. In a combined hybrid the complex architecture requires a multi-input control from the energy management. A classic optimal control obtained with dynamic programming shows that thanks to the high efficiency hybrid electric variable transmission, energy losses come mainly from the internal combustion engine. This paper therefore proposes a sub-optimal control based on the maximization of the engine efficiency that avoids multi-input control. This strategy achieves two aims: enhanced performances in terms of fuel economy and a reduction of computational time.
Technical Paper

Air System Conception for a Downsized Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0831
This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0011
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Automotive Turbocharger Turbine Performance Maps Extrapolation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1034
Engine downsizing is potentially one of the most effective strategies being explored to improve fuel economy. A main problem of downsizing using a turbocharger is the small range of stable functioning of the turbocharger centrifugal compressor at high boost pressures, and hence the measurement of the performance maps of both compressor and turbine. Automotive manufacturers use mainly numerical simulations for internal combustion engines simulations, hence the need of an accurate extrapolation model to get a complete turbine performance map. These complete maps are then used for internal combustion engines calibration. Automotive manufacturers use commercial softwares to extrapolate the turbine narrow performance maps, both mass flow characteristics and the efficiency curve.
Journal Article

Preliminary Design of a Two-Stroke Uniflow Diesel Engine for Passenger Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-1719
The target of substantial CO₂ reductions in the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol as well as higher engine efficiency requirements has increased research efforts into hybridization of passenger cars. In the frame of this hybridization, there is a real need to develop small Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) with high power density. The two-stroke cycle can be a solution to reach these goals, allowing reductions of engine displacement, size and weight while maintaining good NVH, power and consumption levels. Reducing the number of cylinders, could also help reduce engine cost. Taking advantage of a strong interaction between the design office, 0D system simulations and 3D CFD computations, a specific methodology was set up in order to define a first optimized version of a two-stroke uniflow diesel engine. The main geometrical specifications (displacement, architecture) were chosen at the beginning of the study based on a bibliographic pre-study and the power target in terms.
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