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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of 30% Biodiesel Fuel on Soot Loading and Regeneration of a Catalytic DPF

2007-07-23
2007-01-2023
Biofuels are a renewable energy source. When used as extenders for transportation fuels, biofuels contribute to the global reduction of Green House Gas and CO2 emissions from the transport sector and to security and independence of energy supply. On a “Well to Wheel” basis they are much more CO2 efficient than conventional fossil fuels. All vehicles currently in circulation in Europe are capable of using 5 % biodiesel. The introduction of higher percentages biodiesel needs new specific standards and vehicle tests validation. The development of vehicles compatible with 30% biodiesel blends in diesel fuel includes the validation of each part of both engine and fuel vehicle systems to guarantee normal operation for the entire life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Gravel Noise Mechanisms and Impact Noise Transfer

2007-05-15
2007-01-2274
Impact noise, inside a car, due to tire-launched gravel on the road can lead to loss of quality perception. Gravel noise is mainly caused by small-sized particles which are too small to be seen on the road by the driver. The investigation focuses on the identification of the mechanisms of excitation and transfer. The spatial distribution of the particles flying from a tire is determined, as well as the probable impact locations on the vehicle body-panels. Finally the relative noise contributions of the body-panels are estimated by adding the panel-to-ear transfer functions. This form of Transfer-Path-Analysis allows vehicle optimization and target setting on the level of the tires, exterior panel treatment and isolation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Both Catalyst Geometry and Fuel Sulfur Content on NOX Adsorber Poisoning

2001-05-07
2001-01-1934
NOx adsorbers are very sensitive to sulfur poisoning and future fuel standards are unlikely to be sufficient to prevent the system from requiring periodic desulfation procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the effects of low fuel sulfur content such as 50 ppm and 10 ppm on the NOx adsorber efficiency for a diesel application. Through this study, the influence of the substrate cell geometry has also been assessed. The use of a 10 ppm sulfur fuel is not enough to maintain, at a high level, the NOx adsorber performance during a 40,000 km aging test. The desulfation criterion (efficiency loss of 30%) is reached after the first 16,000 km. However, the desulfation operation is not enough to recover the initial catalyst performance and the poisoning velocity increases as the catalyst ages. The hexagonal cell substrate catalyst is less sensitive to sulfur poisoning than a square cell substrate catalyst so that its desulfation frequency is much lower.
Technical Paper

Euroncap~Views and suggestions for improvements

2001-06-04
2001-06-0087
Since its creation in 1996, Euroncap evaluated more than 80 cars, ranging from small and city cars, to larger vehicles such as executive cars and people carriers (MPVs). The testing protocol comprises 3 types of tests: a frontal offset test against a deformable barrier, a 90° lateral impact with a moving deformable barrier, and - since March 2000 - a pole side impact. In addition a set of subsystem tests with impactors on the bonnet and the front face of the car are conducted to assess the pedestrian protection. The aim of this paper is to review the testing and assessment protocols and to compare them with those used in other NCAP systems in the USA, Australia, Japan and Europe. In particular, important Euroncap issues such as the stiffness of heavier vehicles that could be increased in the future, and the nature and weight of the modifiers are discussed. Ways to improve the system are suggested in relation with real-world accident data.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic NOx Remediation from a Lean Model Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3508
No efficient catalyst presently exists for deNOx in lean burn conditions. Furthermore, actual catalysts generally deactivate during reaction. A cylindrical DBD non-thermal plasma reactor was coupled with a stable three-function catalyst in order to verify the nature of the effect of the plasma on the catalytic process. A mixture of NO/O2/C3H6 in N2 was used as a lean model exhaust. The plasma was found to perform two of the three functions: NO oxidation to NO2 and propene activation through the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon to aldehyde or alcohol. A complete catalyst containing the first two previous functions and the associative chemisorption of NO (third function) was used, as well as a simplified catalyst containing only the third function. Results suggest an advantageous plasma-catalyst coupling effect on NOx remediation in accordance with the proposed catalytic model.
Technical Paper

NOx-Trap System Development and Characterization for Diesel Engines Emission Control

2000-10-16
2000-01-2910
Laboratory and vehicle tests were carried out to investigate behaviour and potentiality of NOx-trap catalytic system in Diesel conditions. Three main aspects were studied. The first one deals with the NOx storage capacity of adsorber under laboratory and vehicle conditions, especially regarding the influence of driving conditions. The second one focuses on the regenerability of different materials. At length, special attention is devoted to the sulphur poisoning rate. A representative laboratory test method was built up, to evaluate NOx storage capacity under Diesel conditions. It is shown that NOx adsorption occurs from 100 to 400°C. Low temperature activity (100 to 250°C) is conditioned by low NOx flow emission, mainly due to the use of high EGR rate. Higher temperatures lead to an increase in the intrinsic NOx Storage capacity of the material, but are also accompanied by high NOx concentration and space velocity.
Technical Paper

Multi-Fuel Fuel Processor and PEM Fuel Cell System for Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0692
An ongoing program has made further technology advances in onboard fuel processors for use with PEM fuel cells. These systems are being explored as an option for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and for other benefits such as fuel-flexibility that would allow vehicles to operate on a range of bio-fuels, conventional fuels, and synthetic fuels to support diversification and/or “greening” of the fuel supply. As presented at the 2006 SAE World Congress1, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells previously developed fuel processor technology that achieved automotive size (80 liters) and power (1.4 g/s of hydrogen production) and reduced the startup time from more than 60 minutes to between 1.4 and 3.7 minutes to have CO <100 ppm. This paper presents an overview of the multi-fuel fuel cell power plant along with advances in the fuel processing system (FPS) technology and the testing results obtained since those reported in 2006.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2147
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acoustic Synthesis Method: Improving Acquisition Time by Using P-U Probes

2005-05-16
2005-01-2444
In order to reach OEMs acoustic treatment targets (improving performance while minimizing the weight and cost impact), we have developed an original hybrid approach called “Vehicle Acoustic synthesis method”[1] to simulate - and therefore to optimize - noise treatments for both insulation and absorption, and to calculate the resulting Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at ear points for the middle and high frequency range. To calculate the SPL, we identify equivalent volume velocity sources from intensity measurements, and combine them to acoustic transfer functions (panel/ear) measured or computed with ray tracing codes using the reciprocity principle. Compared to our first approach [1], this paper shows a new measurement technique using pressure-particle velocity probes [2]. This technique allows to reduce acquisition time by a factor four, and makes therefore possible a synthesis method on a complete car within two weeks.
Technical Paper

French Program on the Impact of Engine Technology on Particulate Emissions, Size Distribution and Composition Heavy Duty Diesel Study

2005-04-11
2005-01-0190
An extensive research program involving the French passenger car and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles manufacturers, sponsored by ADEME and realized by IFP, aimed to characterize in terms of size and composition the particulate emitted by the different engine technologies currently or soon available. The impact of engine settings and fuel composition was also studied. Numerous information was collected in this HD study revealing that fuel composition and particularly non-conventional fuels and engine settings strongly impact the particulate concentration and size distribution. Nucleation is likely to occur when there is less adsorption matter, for instance when post-injection is used or EGR is removed. Particulate composition, particularly PAH and sulfates content, is weakly bound to the size. Mineral elements distribution depends on their origin, lubrication oil or engine wear.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

2004-06-08
2004-01-1904
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Technical Paper

Repeatability of Fine Particle Measurement of Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Exhaust Gas

2004-06-08
2004-01-1983
Four Diesel vehicles and two gasoline ones are used to determine the repeatability of the particle number and size measurements. Two analytical techniques are used: Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The influence of technology (Euro2 and Euro3, Diesel and gasoline vehicles, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)) and speed on the particle number and size is presented in the case of steady speeds and the European Driving Cycle (EDC). The repeatability of these measurements is determined at the entire particle distribution. The global 1.96*Standard Deviation (SD) of the median diameter, determined by SMPS, is 8 nm. The median diameter is difficult to be determined in several cases due to the flat profiles of the emitted particles. The global 1.96*Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of the particle number presents a U-like curve, with a minimum value (55-57%) at about 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Impact of Gasoline RON and MON on a Turbocharged MPI SI Engine Performances

2004-06-08
2004-01-2001
This paper presents a combustion study of gasoline anti-knock quality effects on turbocharged MPI SI engine performances. A comparative analysis between many fuels covering various Research Octane Number (RON), Motor Octane Number (MON) and sensitivity (RON-MON) is described. The study was conducted on steady state test bench, using a four cylinder 2 L engine. In turbocharged gasoline engines, knock resistance is more than ever a crucial issue to achieve high performance and good customer's consumption level. Octane level is therefore a fuel key parameter. Considering thermodynamic aspects of such combustion at full load, performances, fuel consumption and engine thermal strains are evaluated for each tested fuel. An important influence of RON at iso sensitivity was observed. Because of the extreme conditions met on turbocharged gasoline engine, the impact of RON is exacerbated on such engine and illustrates the great benefits of an increase RON fuel.
Technical Paper

System Approach for NOx Reduction: Double LNT Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

2011-04-12
2011-01-1300
This paper presents an after-treatment architecture combining a close coupled NOx trap and an under floor NOx trap. Instead of simply increasing the volume of the catalyst, we propose to broaden the active temperature window by splitting the LNT along the exhaust line. In order to design this architecture, a complete 1D model of NOx trap has been developed. Validated with respect to experimental data, this model has been useful to define the two volumes of LNT, making significant savings on the test bench exploitation. However, one of the main difficulties to operate the proposed architecture is the NOx purge and sulfur poisoning management. In order to optimize the NOx and sulfur purge launches, we have developed a control strategy based on an embedded reduced LNT model. These strategies have been validated on different driving cycles, by the means of simulation and of vehicle tests using rapid prototyping tools.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Gravimetric Method for the Mass Measurement of Diesel Exhaust Gas Particles

2005-05-11
2005-01-2145
The Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) works on the identification of a method to replace or complete the existing particle mass (PM) measurement method. The French PMP subgroup, composed by IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and UTAC, proposes an improved gravimetric method for the measurement of emitted particles, and conducted an inter-laboratory test to evaluate its performances. The technical programme is based on tests carried out on a Euro3 Diesel passenger car (PC), tested on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To achieve low particulate matter (PM) emissions, the EGR is disconnected and a paraffinic fuel is used. The regulated pollutants are also measured. It is shown that the multiple filter weighing and a 0.1 μg balance instead of a 1 μg one are not necessary, as the first weighing and the 1 μg balance performances are satisfactory for type-approval purposes.
Technical Paper

Advanced Onboard Fuel Processor for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0216
To reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2, automakers are actively pursuing alternative propulsion systems. Improvements to current engine technology are being investigated along with new power plant technologies. Fuel Cell Vehicles offer an exciting option by producing electric power through a reaction that combines hydrogen and oxygen to make water. However, hydrogen storage onboard vehicles and construction of an expensive hydrogen distribution and fueling infrastructure remain as challenges today. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions from the production of hydrogen must be considered since most hydrogen is currently produced from non-renewable sources. While these issues are being worked on, Renault has chosen to pursue a fuel cell vehicle with a fuel processor that converts gasoline and other liquid fuels to hydrogen onboard the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Calculation Process with Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Element Methods to Choose the Best Exterior Design for Wind Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1471
Wind noise in automobile is becoming more and more important as the customer expectations increase. On the other hand, great progress has been made on engine and road noises, especially for electric and hybrid vehicles. Thus, the wind noise is now by far the major acoustic source during road and motorway driving. As for other noises, automobile manufacturers must be able, for a new car project, to specify, calculate and measure each step of the acoustic cascading: Source Transfers, both solid and air borne In the case of the automotive wind noise, the excitation source is the dynamic pressure on the vehicle’s panels. This part of the cascading is the one influenced by the exterior design. Even if many others components (panels, seals, cabin trims) have a big influence, the exterior design is a major issue for the wind noise. The wind noise level in the cabin may change significantly with only a small modification of the exterior design.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Acoustic Treatments for Powertrain Noise Radiation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1486
The reduction of the emitted noise from vehicles is a primary issue for automotive OEM’s due to the constant evolution of the noise regulations. As the noise generated by the powertrain remains one of the major noise sources at low/mid vehicle velocities, focus is set on efficient methods to control this source. Acoustic treatments and covers, made of multi-layered trimmed panels, are frequently selected to control the radiated sound and its directivity. In this context, numerical acoustic simulation is an attractive approach as efficient methodologies are available to study the acoustic radiation of powertrain units in working conditions (up to 6500 RPM nd frequencies up to 4 kHz). Moreover, handling acoustically-treated covers in such simulations has a low impact on the computational cost.
Technical Paper

Impact of Sulphur on the NOx Trap Catalyst Activity-Poisoning and Regeneration Behaviour

2000-06-19
2000-01-1874
This presented paper deals with NOx trap sulphur poisoning and its regeneration. Sulphur poisoning has been studied with different SO2 gas concentrations under laboratory and engine test bench conditions. The sulphur poisoning studies have shown that the different NOx-traps available in the market have different behaviours toward SO2 poisoning and are all very sensitive to it. The results outline a non linear relationship of the NOx trap sulphur poisoning as a function of SO2 concentration. For instance, engine bench tests show that with a 50 and a 110ppm sulphur containing gasoline, a decrease of 50% in the NOx-trap storage capacity is respectively observed after 20 and 15 hours. With a gasoline containing 20ppm of sulphur, the same deactivation level is observed after 90 hours.
Journal Article

Towards an Innovative Combination of Natural Gas and Liquid Fuel Injection in Spark Ignition Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1513
In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
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