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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of 30% Biodiesel Fuel on Soot Loading and Regeneration of a Catalytic DPF

2007-07-23
2007-01-2023
Biofuels are a renewable energy source. When used as extenders for transportation fuels, biofuels contribute to the global reduction of Green House Gas and CO2 emissions from the transport sector and to security and independence of energy supply. On a “Well to Wheel” basis they are much more CO2 efficient than conventional fossil fuels. All vehicles currently in circulation in Europe are capable of using 5 % biodiesel. The introduction of higher percentages biodiesel needs new specific standards and vehicle tests validation. The development of vehicles compatible with 30% biodiesel blends in diesel fuel includes the validation of each part of both engine and fuel vehicle systems to guarantee normal operation for the entire life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Gravel Noise Mechanisms and Impact Noise Transfer

2007-05-15
2007-01-2274
Impact noise, inside a car, due to tire-launched gravel on the road can lead to loss of quality perception. Gravel noise is mainly caused by small-sized particles which are too small to be seen on the road by the driver. The investigation focuses on the identification of the mechanisms of excitation and transfer. The spatial distribution of the particles flying from a tire is determined, as well as the probable impact locations on the vehicle body-panels. Finally the relative noise contributions of the body-panels are estimated by adding the panel-to-ear transfer functions. This form of Transfer-Path-Analysis allows vehicle optimization and target setting on the level of the tires, exterior panel treatment and isolation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Both Catalyst Geometry and Fuel Sulfur Content on NOX Adsorber Poisoning

2001-05-07
2001-01-1934
NOx adsorbers are very sensitive to sulfur poisoning and future fuel standards are unlikely to be sufficient to prevent the system from requiring periodic desulfation procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the effects of low fuel sulfur content such as 50 ppm and 10 ppm on the NOx adsorber efficiency for a diesel application. Through this study, the influence of the substrate cell geometry has also been assessed. The use of a 10 ppm sulfur fuel is not enough to maintain, at a high level, the NOx adsorber performance during a 40,000 km aging test. The desulfation criterion (efficiency loss of 30%) is reached after the first 16,000 km. However, the desulfation operation is not enough to recover the initial catalyst performance and the poisoning velocity increases as the catalyst ages. The hexagonal cell substrate catalyst is less sensitive to sulfur poisoning than a square cell substrate catalyst so that its desulfation frequency is much lower.
Technical Paper

Euroncap~Views and suggestions for improvements

2001-06-04
2001-06-0087
Since its creation in 1996, Euroncap evaluated more than 80 cars, ranging from small and city cars, to larger vehicles such as executive cars and people carriers (MPVs). The testing protocol comprises 3 types of tests: a frontal offset test against a deformable barrier, a 90° lateral impact with a moving deformable barrier, and - since March 2000 - a pole side impact. In addition a set of subsystem tests with impactors on the bonnet and the front face of the car are conducted to assess the pedestrian protection. The aim of this paper is to review the testing and assessment protocols and to compare them with those used in other NCAP systems in the USA, Australia, Japan and Europe. In particular, important Euroncap issues such as the stiffness of heavier vehicles that could be increased in the future, and the nature and weight of the modifiers are discussed. Ways to improve the system are suggested in relation with real-world accident data.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic NOx Remediation from a Lean Model Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3508
No efficient catalyst presently exists for deNOx in lean burn conditions. Furthermore, actual catalysts generally deactivate during reaction. A cylindrical DBD non-thermal plasma reactor was coupled with a stable three-function catalyst in order to verify the nature of the effect of the plasma on the catalytic process. A mixture of NO/O2/C3H6 in N2 was used as a lean model exhaust. The plasma was found to perform two of the three functions: NO oxidation to NO2 and propene activation through the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon to aldehyde or alcohol. A complete catalyst containing the first two previous functions and the associative chemisorption of NO (third function) was used, as well as a simplified catalyst containing only the third function. Results suggest an advantageous plasma-catalyst coupling effect on NOx remediation in accordance with the proposed catalytic model.
Technical Paper

NOx-Trap System Development and Characterization for Diesel Engines Emission Control

2000-10-16
2000-01-2910
Laboratory and vehicle tests were carried out to investigate behaviour and potentiality of NOx-trap catalytic system in Diesel conditions. Three main aspects were studied. The first one deals with the NOx storage capacity of adsorber under laboratory and vehicle conditions, especially regarding the influence of driving conditions. The second one focuses on the regenerability of different materials. At length, special attention is devoted to the sulphur poisoning rate. A representative laboratory test method was built up, to evaluate NOx storage capacity under Diesel conditions. It is shown that NOx adsorption occurs from 100 to 400°C. Low temperature activity (100 to 250°C) is conditioned by low NOx flow emission, mainly due to the use of high EGR rate. Higher temperatures lead to an increase in the intrinsic NOx Storage capacity of the material, but are also accompanied by high NOx concentration and space velocity.
Technical Paper

Comparison between the exhaust particles mass determined by the European regulatory gravimetric method and the mass estimated by ELPI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2147
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
Technical Paper

French Program on the Impact of Engine Technology on Particulate Emissions, Size Distribution and Composition Heavy Duty Diesel Study

2005-04-11
2005-01-0190
An extensive research program involving the French passenger car and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles manufacturers, sponsored by ADEME and realized by IFP, aimed to characterize in terms of size and composition the particulate emitted by the different engine technologies currently or soon available. The impact of engine settings and fuel composition was also studied. Numerous information was collected in this HD study revealing that fuel composition and particularly non-conventional fuels and engine settings strongly impact the particulate concentration and size distribution. Nucleation is likely to occur when there is less adsorption matter, for instance when post-injection is used or EGR is removed. Particulate composition, particularly PAH and sulfates content, is weakly bound to the size. Mineral elements distribution depends on their origin, lubrication oil or engine wear.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

2004-06-08
2004-01-1904
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Technical Paper

Repeatability of Fine Particle Measurement of Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Exhaust Gas

2004-06-08
2004-01-1983
Four Diesel vehicles and two gasoline ones are used to determine the repeatability of the particle number and size measurements. Two analytical techniques are used: Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The influence of technology (Euro2 and Euro3, Diesel and gasoline vehicles, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)) and speed on the particle number and size is presented in the case of steady speeds and the European Driving Cycle (EDC). The repeatability of these measurements is determined at the entire particle distribution. The global 1.96*Standard Deviation (SD) of the median diameter, determined by SMPS, is 8 nm. The median diameter is difficult to be determined in several cases due to the flat profiles of the emitted particles. The global 1.96*Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of the particle number presents a U-like curve, with a minimum value (55-57%) at about 100 nm.
Technical Paper

System Approach for NOx Reduction: Double LNT Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

2011-04-12
2011-01-1300
This paper presents an after-treatment architecture combining a close coupled NOx trap and an under floor NOx trap. Instead of simply increasing the volume of the catalyst, we propose to broaden the active temperature window by splitting the LNT along the exhaust line. In order to design this architecture, a complete 1D model of NOx trap has been developed. Validated with respect to experimental data, this model has been useful to define the two volumes of LNT, making significant savings on the test bench exploitation. However, one of the main difficulties to operate the proposed architecture is the NOx purge and sulfur poisoning management. In order to optimize the NOx and sulfur purge launches, we have developed a control strategy based on an embedded reduced LNT model. These strategies have been validated on different driving cycles, by the means of simulation and of vehicle tests using rapid prototyping tools.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Gravimetric Method for the Mass Measurement of Diesel Exhaust Gas Particles

2005-05-11
2005-01-2145
The Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) works on the identification of a method to replace or complete the existing particle mass (PM) measurement method. The French PMP subgroup, composed by IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and UTAC, proposes an improved gravimetric method for the measurement of emitted particles, and conducted an inter-laboratory test to evaluate its performances. The technical programme is based on tests carried out on a Euro3 Diesel passenger car (PC), tested on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To achieve low particulate matter (PM) emissions, the EGR is disconnected and a paraffinic fuel is used. The regulated pollutants are also measured. It is shown that the multiple filter weighing and a 0.1 μg balance instead of a 1 μg one are not necessary, as the first weighing and the 1 μg balance performances are satisfactory for type-approval purposes.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Acoustic Treatments for Powertrain Noise Radiation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1486
The reduction of the emitted noise from vehicles is a primary issue for automotive OEM’s due to the constant evolution of the noise regulations. As the noise generated by the powertrain remains one of the major noise sources at low/mid vehicle velocities, focus is set on efficient methods to control this source. Acoustic treatments and covers, made of multi-layered trimmed panels, are frequently selected to control the radiated sound and its directivity. In this context, numerical acoustic simulation is an attractive approach as efficient methodologies are available to study the acoustic radiation of powertrain units in working conditions (up to 6500 RPM nd frequencies up to 4 kHz). Moreover, handling acoustically-treated covers in such simulations has a low impact on the computational cost.
Technical Paper

Impact of Sulphur on the NOx Trap Catalyst Activity-Poisoning and Regeneration Behaviour

2000-06-19
2000-01-1874
This presented paper deals with NOx trap sulphur poisoning and its regeneration. Sulphur poisoning has been studied with different SO2 gas concentrations under laboratory and engine test bench conditions. The sulphur poisoning studies have shown that the different NOx-traps available in the market have different behaviours toward SO2 poisoning and are all very sensitive to it. The results outline a non linear relationship of the NOx trap sulphur poisoning as a function of SO2 concentration. For instance, engine bench tests show that with a 50 and a 110ppm sulphur containing gasoline, a decrease of 50% in the NOx-trap storage capacity is respectively observed after 20 and 15 hours. With a gasoline containing 20ppm of sulphur, the same deactivation level is observed after 90 hours.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations of Turbocharger's Bearing Losses

2010-05-05
2010-01-1537
Fuel consumption in internal combustion engines and their associated CO2 emissions have become one of the major issues facing car manufacturers everyday for various reasons: the Kyoto protocol, the upcoming European regulation concerning CO2 emissions requiring emissions of less than 130g CO2/km before 2012, and customer demand. One of the most efficient solutions to reduce fuel consumption is to downsize the engine and increase its specific power and torque by using turbochargers. The engine and the turbocharger have to be chosen carefully and be finely tuned. It is essential to understand and characterise the turbocharger's behaviour precisely and on its whole operating range, especially at low engine speeds. The characteristics at low speed are not provided by manufacturers of turbochargers because compressor maps cannot be achieve on usual test bench.
Journal Article

Effects of Methane/Hydrogen Blends On Engine Operation: Experimental And Numerical Investigation of Different Combustion Modes

2010-10-25
2010-01-2165
The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
Technical Paper

Erosion Mechanisms and Performance of Cellular Ceramic Substrates

2003-10-27
2003-01-3071
High emission performance standards and precious metals costs have pushed the catalytic substrate toward high cell density and thin wall, such as the 600/4, 600/3 and 900/2 products. Due to the inherently lower mechanical strength of these products, coupled with a shift from underbody to close-coupled placement, a concern was expressed that the severe thermal and mechanical conditions may cause structural damage to the substrate, which in turn could impact the catalyst performance. One source of reduced performance during use is the loss of catalyst due to erosion. A previous study1 indicated that the existence of particulate in an air-stream could cause substrate erosion. However, it was not clear if other factors could contribute to or accelerate the erosion process. In order to address this question, experiments were performed to examine the influence of high velocity flow, temperature, impingement angle, particulate characteristics, and coating effect on erosion.
Journal Article

Investigation on Multiple Injection Strategies for Gasoline PPC Operation in a Newly Designed 2-Stroke HSDI Compression Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0830
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) of fuels in the gasoline octane range has proven its potential to achieve simultaneous reduction in soot and NOX emissions, combined with high indicated efficiencies; while still retaining proper control over combustion phasing with the injection event, contrary to fully premixed strategies. However, gasoline fuels with high octane number as the commonly available for the public provide a challenge to ensure reliable ignition especially in the low load range, while fuel blends with lower octane numbers present problems for extending the ignition delay in the high load range and avoid the onset of knocking-like combustion. Thus, choosing an appropriate fuel and injection strategy is critical to solve these issues, assuring successful PPC operation in the full engine map.
Technical Paper

Semi-Empirical 0D Modeling for Engine-Out Soot Emission Prediction in D.I. Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0562
Due to its harmful effect on both human health and environment, soot emission is considered as one of the most important diesel engine pollutants. In the last decades, the industrial engine manufacturers have been able to strongly reduce its engine-out value by many different techniques, in order to respect the stricter emission norms. Simulation modeling has played and continues to play a key role for this purpose in the engine control system development. In this context, this paper proposes a new soot emission model for a direct injection diesel engine. This soot model is based on a zero-dimensional semi-physical approach coupled with a crank-angle resolved combustion model and a thermodynamic calculation of the burned gas products temperature. Furthermore, a multi linear regression model has been used to estimate the soot emissions as function of significant physical combustion parameters.
Journal Article

Control-Oriented Modeling of a LNT-SCR Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

2011-04-12
2011-01-1307
Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts (SCR) are two leading candidates for diesel NOx after-treatment. Each technology exhibits good properties to reduce efficiently diesel NOx emissions in order to match the forthcoming EURO 6 standards. NOx reduction in LNT is made through a two-step process. In normal (lean) mode, diesel engine exhausts NOx is stored into the NOx trap; then when necessary the engine runs rich during limited time to treat the stored NOx. This operating mode has the benefit of using onboard fuel as NOx reducer. But NOx trap solution is restrained by limited active temperature windows. On the other hand, NH₃-SCR catalysts operate in a wider range of temperature and do not contain precious metals. However, NH₃-SCR systems traditionally use urea-water solution as reducing agent, requiring thus additional infrastructure to supply the vehicles with enough reducer. These pros and cons are quite restrictive in classical LNT or NH₃-SCR architecture.
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