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Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved Determination of Fuel Concentration and Air/Fuel Ratio in a SI-Internal Combustion Engine Using a Modified Optical Spark Plug

2007-04-16
2007-01-0644
A fiber optical sensor system was used to detect the local fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark position in a cylinder of a four-stroke SI production engine. The fuel concentration was determined by the infrared absorption method, which allows crank angle resolved fuel concentration measurements during multiple successive engine cycles. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 3.4 μm wavelength region due to the infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of hydrocarbons (HC). The absorption path was integrated in a modified spark plug and a tungsten halide lamp was used as an infrared light source. All investigations were carried out on a four-stroke spark ignition engine with fuel injection into the intake manifold. The measurements were made under starting conditions of the engine, which means a low engine speed. The engine operated with common gasoline (Euro Super) at different air/fuel-ratios.
Technical Paper

Simulation Tool Chain for the Estimation of EMC Characteristics of ECU Modules

2007-04-16
2007-01-1591
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements and the effort to fulfill them are increasing steadily in automotive applications. This paper demonstrates the usage of virtual prototyping to efficiently investigate the EMC behavior of a gasoline direct injection system. While the system worked functionally as designed, tests indicated that current and especially future client-specific EMC limits could not be met. The goal of this investigation was to identify and eliminate the cause of EMC emissions using a virtual software prototype including the controller ASIC, boost converter, pi filter, injection valves and wire harness. Applying virtual prototyping techniques it was possible to capture the motor control system in a simulation model which reproduced EMC measurements in the frequency ranges of interest.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

2001-05-07
2001-01-1917
The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

Sensor Vision and Collision Warning Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C001
Due to an earlier analysis of the interrelation between collisions and advanced driver reaction a significant number of accidents could be avoided through timely threat recognition and appropriate maneuvers for collision avoidance. This may be achieved either by suitable warning to the driver or by automatic support to longitudinal or lateral control of the vehicle. A precondition for the registration of the dangerous situation is the incorporation of appropriate sensors. This leads to an surround sensor vision system accompanied by a matched human machine interface. Many vehicles readily offer ultrasonic reversing aids as add-on systems. Furthermore, long-range radar systems for adaptive cruise control are now coming on the market. New sensor technologies, such as short-range radar and video, which are currently under development, open up a plurality of novel functions thus enhancing driving safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

Using Patterns to Integrate Views in Open Automotive Systems

2001-10-01
2001-01-3396
Automotive product lines promote reuse of software artifacts such as architectures, designs and implementations. System architectures, and especially software architectures, are difficult to create due to the need to support variations. Traditional approaches emphasize the identification and description of generic components, which makes it difficult to support variations among products. The paper proposes an approach for transforming a software architecture to product design through using patterns in a four-way refinement and evolution process. The paper investigates how patterns may be used to verify the conceptual integrity in the view integration procedure to support software sharing in an open automotive system.
Technical Paper

FEM Approximation of Internal Combustion Chambers for Knock Investigations

2002-03-04
2002-01-0237
The resonances of SI engine combustion chambers are slightly excited during normal combustion but strongly excited by knock. In order to avoid knocking combustions extensive knowledge about knock and its effects is necessary. In this paper the combustion chamber of a serial production engine is modeled by finite elements. Modal analyses are performed in order to gain information about the resonances, their frequencies, and their frequency and amplitude modulations. Simulation results are compared to measured data using a high-resolution time-frequency method. Furthermore, a connection between knock origin and the excitation of the resonances is postulated applying transient analyses.
Technical Paper

The Computation of Airbag Deployment Times with the Help of Precrash Information

2002-03-04
2002-01-0192
Modern airbag control units are required to compute airbag deployment times with a high degree of precision. Therefore, the crash situation has to be recognized unambiguously, i.e. the goal is to obtain precise information about the relative speed, the barrier and the position of impact. One way of achieving this aim is via the implementation of a precrash sensing system using radar sensors. With these sensors, the relative closing velocity and the time-to-impact can be measured, thereby enabling a precise analysis of the crash situation. In this paper the algorithm for the computation of the airbag deployment decision will be presented.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Transport of Multi-Component Exhaust Gases in Oxygen Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-0931
Today's wide range oxygen sensors are based on the limiting current principle, where an applied voltage induces electrochemical reactions in a ceramic cell. Since the diffusive transport of exhaust gas to the electrodes is limited by a transport barrier, the resulting electric current can be related to the exhaust gas composition. A model is presented which describes the transient transport of gas mixtures from the bulk exhaust gas to the electrodes of an oxygen sensor at variable pressure and composition. The internal structure of the transport barrier was accounted for by geometrical parameters. A variety of numerical results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Mass Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-1144
Within the scope of this work, the convective mass transfer to the zirconia sensor element of an exhaust oxygen sensor was analyzed experimentally and numerically. For the experimental setup, a heightened model of an oxygen sensor was built from Lucite® considering the similarity theory. Mass transfer is measured based on the absorption of ammonia and subsequent immediate color reaction. For the numerical investigation, a three-dimensional model of the test rig was built. To predict the flow pattern and the species transport inside the protection tubes, the commercial CFD-Code FLUENT® is used. The model for the mass transfer to the surface is implemented through user-defined functions.
Technical Paper

CARTRONIC® Based Safety Analysis: Introducing Safety Aspects In Early Development Phases

2002-03-04
2002-01-0269
This article gives an overview of the CARTRONIC® based safety analysis (CSA) including an approach for the automatic determination of failure dependencies in automotive systems. CSA is a safety analysis in an early stage of product development. The goals are to identify safety critical components as soon as practicable in the product development process and to automate the analysis as far as possible. This implies that the system view is abstract, i.e. independent of a certain realization just regarding system functionality. In the CSA so called global failure effects will be systematically identified and assessed regarding severity of potential injuries. Global failure effects are especially important because they reveal failures within the system to the outside world (see also definition 3.1). Additionally the CSA keeps track of failure dependencies and supports the integration of safety measures in the system structure.
Technical Paper

Integration of Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN_TC)

2002-03-04
2002-01-0263
Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN) is an extension of the well-known CAN protocol, introducing to CAN networks time triggered communication and a system wide global network time with high precision. Time Triggered CAN has been accepted as international standard ISOCD11898-4. The time triggered communication is built upon the unchanged standard CAN protocol. This allows a software implementation of the time triggered function of TTCAN, based on existing CAN ICs. The high precision global time however requires a hardware implementation. A hardware implementation also offers additional functions like time mark interrupts, a stopwatch, and a synchronization to external events, all independent of software latency times. The TTCAN testchip (TTCAN_TC) is a standalone TTCAN controller and has been produced as a solution to the hen/egg problem of hardware availability versus tool support and research.
Technical Paper

Obstacle Detection for Power Operated Window-Lift and Sunroof Actuation Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0466
In order to prevent injuries due to automatic functions like express- and comfort-opening/closing of power operated window-lift and sunroof systems, mechanisms for detecting obstacles have to be established. The main related regulations are the 74/60/ECC and the FMVSS 118. In this paper we present a unified approach for smart actuators that bases on monitoring the rotational speed of the armature. The advantages have been worked out with the aid of system simulation and proven with tests under realistic and extreme scenarios. The presented results are mainly focused on a sunroof project, which is upcoming for an European car platform in 2001 and is specified to fulfill both regulations simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Hall Effect-Based Magnetosensors in Modern Vehicle Stability Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C058
After comparing magnetosensor technologies for automotive use the system aspects of wheelspeed sensors for vehicle stability systems are discussed. A new generation of intelligent differential Hall Effect-based sensors is described focussing on technology, operating principle and circuitry of the Hall IC. The final realization of the wheel speed sensor is presented concluding with a summary of the main advantages of this concept.
Technical Paper

Human-Machine Interface: How to Make It Simple and Effective

2000-11-01
2000-01-C019
We are faced with a rapidly increasing flood of information to the driver. In addition to established information systems (car radio, vehicle monitoring, mobile phones), high class vehicles feature navigation systems almost as standard. In the next decade, driver assistance and collision mitigation systems will appear in vehicles. Hence, there is an increasing demand for supplying the driver with more information that help him to drive safer and more economical. In parallel, the price decline in the computer market and the availability of powerful graphic hard- and software concepts make it possible to enhance the classical functions of the instrument board to an interactive multifunctional information panel, and the dashboard will be the main interface between car and driver.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0970
Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Information Technology - A Challenge for Automotive Electronics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0029
In the automotive industry, a steadily growing number of mono-functional electronic control units (ECUs) with increasing complexity on the one hand and restrictive requirements for power consumption and mounting space on the other hand are forcing changes in car electronics. This tendency is enforced by increasing requirements on security, comfort, fuel consumption and emission. In luxury cars, we are now at up to 80 more or less independent electronic units with low potential for synergies between functions (pan-functional services). The actual assembly of electronic units is certainly easily expandable, has very low error propagation but it also involves lots of logistic and bulky cabling with unwanted weight as well as extensive space and power consumption. If trends are properly interpreted, synergies between functions for more comfort, additional safety and security as well as minor air pollution are required in the future at least at unchanged costs in the vehicle's electronics.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Applying a Product Line Approach for Car Periphery Supervision Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0025
Car Periphery Supervision (CPS) systems comprise a family of automotive systems that are based on sensors installed around the vehicle to monitor its environment. The measurement and evaluation of sensor data enables the realization of several kinds of higher level applications such as parking assistance or blind spot detection. Although a lot of similarity can be identified among CPS applications, these systems are traditionally built separately. Usually, each single system is built with its own electronic control unit, and it is likely that the application software is bound to the controller's hardware. Current systems engineering therefore often leads to a large number of inflexible, dedicated systems in the automobile that together consume a large amount of power, weight, and installation space and produce high manufacturing and maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
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