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Technical Paper

Electronic Braking System EBS - Status and Advanced Functions

1998-11-16
982781
Since 1996 a 2nd Generation EBS has been available in Europe as an advanced brake system offering a variety of advantages to the OEM as well as to the truck and fleet owner. EBS enhances vehicle safety and improves the braking performance to a “passenger car like” braking feel, allowing less experienced drivers better vehicle handling. The brake lining wear control and retarder integration allow the reduction of operational costs. The safety enhancements achieved by EBS in conjunction with disc brakes, are rewarded by European truck insurance companies by lower insurance fees. The importance of EBS will still gain significantly through the developments in process. EBS is the platform for ESP and ACC, which will be a major contributer to better integration of trucks in dense traffic flow.
Technical Paper

ABS5.3: The New and Compact ABS5 Unit for Passenger Cars

1995-02-01
950757
The transition from the multi-component ABS2 design to the one housing concept of ABS5.0 represented a significant step in improving the ABS unit. ABS5.3 is the successor of ABS5.0 to achieve a highly compact, light weight inexpensive design, for the broad use of ABS in all passenger cars and light trucks. New technologies applied are the staking technique for hydraulic components, the use of microhybrid electronics design and solenoid coils being integrated within the attached electronic control unit. The unit can be manufactured in global alliance achieved by simultaneous engineering, applying CAD, FE-analysis, flow calculation and simulation, noise analysis and quality assurance which includes FMEA, error simulation, durability tests and the dry testing concept. The ABS5.3 design can be easily expanded to Traction Control (ASR).
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Transients in Longitudinal and Lateral Tire Forces

1990-02-01
900210
The design of ABS- or vehicle control systems by means of computer simulation needs adequate tire models. Recordings of the wheel speed during ABS control show oscillations caused by the rapid pressure changes in the wheel brake cylinder. Investigations in lateral tire dynamics show a phase shift between the slip angle and the lateral tire force. These transients can not be explained by simulation if the usual stationary tire input-output behaviour is supposed. Thus the investigation of the oscillations requires a different approach to the modelling of the tire. In a first step measurements with an experimental car equipped with a computer for data acquisition and control and with various sensors - e.g. a Rotating Wheel Dynamometer - were carried out. The measurement results showed a correlation between the oscillations in the wheel speed and the braking force caused by the pressure pulses as well as high frequency oscillations in the lateral tire forces.
Technical Paper

Pressure Modulation in Separate and Integrated Antiskid Systems with Regard to Safety

1984-02-01
840467
The antiskid systems which have been on the market for some time are characterized by the fact that they are separate from the brake power-assist unit and are positioned between the master cylinder and the wheel brakes (separate configuration). At present, integrated antiskid systems are also being prepared for launching on the market. In these systems the hydraulic brake power-assist unit performs the functions of brake boosting and partly also of ABS pressure modulation. The principles of ABS pressure modulation in separate and integrated antiskid systems are compared and questions concerning safety are discussed. With the separate ABS (plunger system, return system) the brake circuits are closed, i.e. when braking and also during ABS operation the volume of brake fluid between the master cylinders and the wheel brake cylinders is closed and separated from the energy supply of the hydraulic brake power-assist unit.
Technical Paper

Application of ISO 26262 in Distributed Development ISO 26262 in Reality

2009-04-20
2009-01-0758
With its origin in the process industry, the IEC 61508 „Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” is not fully applicable in the automotive industry, forcing the automotive industry to work on an automotive specific adaptation (ISO 26262 “Functional Safety – Road Vehicles”). This ISO 26262 describes an ideal development process that starts from scratch. In reality development activities are often split locally and in time. This can only be handled with a world wide standard as a basis of a common approach, wide enough to give enough freedom to adapt to diverse boundary conditions, but tight enough to hinder local interpretations to be that far, that a complete safety case becomes impossible. Therefore a strict world-wide standard which allows compatible interpretations is mandatory.
Journal Article

Side View Assist - The World’s First Rider Assistance System for Two-Wheelers

2016-11-08
2016-32-0052
The Side View Assist is the World’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Warning system, which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (i.e. a car, truck, or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns the rider with an optical signal close to the mirror. This will allow the rider to avoid a collision when changing lanes. In the current vehicle application, Side View Assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps to improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for cars and different system solutions for cars have been in serial production for several years. The challenge was to adapt these systems so they would work for two-wheelers as well.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Transient Tire Forces

1989-02-01
890640
High performance Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) are well known to allow for very rapid pressure changes in the wheel brake cylinders. Recordings of the wheel speed during ABS control show oscillations just after the rapid pressure changes. The oscillations can not be explained by simulation if the usual stationary brake force versus slip curves are used. Thus the investigation of the oscillations requires a different approach to the modelling of the tire. As a first step in the alternative modelling of the tire the forces and moments on the running tire were measured using an experimental car. During the measurement the pressure in the wheel brake cylinder was modulated stepwise. A new Rotating Wheel Dynamometer was used to take those measurements. The results showed that the oscillations which were observed in the wheel speed could also be found in the braking force on the tire. Contrarily, the corresponding oscillations could not be found in the braking torque.
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