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Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved Determination of Fuel Concentration and Air/Fuel Ratio in a SI-Internal Combustion Engine Using a Modified Optical Spark Plug

2007-04-16
2007-01-0644
A fiber optical sensor system was used to detect the local fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark position in a cylinder of a four-stroke SI production engine. The fuel concentration was determined by the infrared absorption method, which allows crank angle resolved fuel concentration measurements during multiple successive engine cycles. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 3.4 μm wavelength region due to the infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of hydrocarbons (HC). The absorption path was integrated in a modified spark plug and a tungsten halide lamp was used as an infrared light source. All investigations were carried out on a four-stroke spark ignition engine with fuel injection into the intake manifold. The measurements were made under starting conditions of the engine, which means a low engine speed. The engine operated with common gasoline (Euro Super) at different air/fuel-ratios.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

2001-05-07
2001-01-1917
The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

Sensor Vision and Collision Warning Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C001
Due to an earlier analysis of the interrelation between collisions and advanced driver reaction a significant number of accidents could be avoided through timely threat recognition and appropriate maneuvers for collision avoidance. This may be achieved either by suitable warning to the driver or by automatic support to longitudinal or lateral control of the vehicle. A precondition for the registration of the dangerous situation is the incorporation of appropriate sensors. This leads to an surround sensor vision system accompanied by a matched human machine interface. Many vehicles readily offer ultrasonic reversing aids as add-on systems. Furthermore, long-range radar systems for adaptive cruise control are now coming on the market. New sensor technologies, such as short-range radar and video, which are currently under development, open up a plurality of novel functions thus enhancing driving safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

FEM Approximation of Internal Combustion Chambers for Knock Investigations

2002-03-04
2002-01-0237
The resonances of SI engine combustion chambers are slightly excited during normal combustion but strongly excited by knock. In order to avoid knocking combustions extensive knowledge about knock and its effects is necessary. In this paper the combustion chamber of a serial production engine is modeled by finite elements. Modal analyses are performed in order to gain information about the resonances, their frequencies, and their frequency and amplitude modulations. Simulation results are compared to measured data using a high-resolution time-frequency method. Furthermore, a connection between knock origin and the excitation of the resonances is postulated applying transient analyses.
Technical Paper

The Computation of Airbag Deployment Times with the Help of Precrash Information

2002-03-04
2002-01-0192
Modern airbag control units are required to compute airbag deployment times with a high degree of precision. Therefore, the crash situation has to be recognized unambiguously, i.e. the goal is to obtain precise information about the relative speed, the barrier and the position of impact. One way of achieving this aim is via the implementation of a precrash sensing system using radar sensors. With these sensors, the relative closing velocity and the time-to-impact can be measured, thereby enabling a precise analysis of the crash situation. In this paper the algorithm for the computation of the airbag deployment decision will be presented.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Transport of Multi-Component Exhaust Gases in Oxygen Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-0931
Today's wide range oxygen sensors are based on the limiting current principle, where an applied voltage induces electrochemical reactions in a ceramic cell. Since the diffusive transport of exhaust gas to the electrodes is limited by a transport barrier, the resulting electric current can be related to the exhaust gas composition. A model is presented which describes the transient transport of gas mixtures from the bulk exhaust gas to the electrodes of an oxygen sensor at variable pressure and composition. The internal structure of the transport barrier was accounted for by geometrical parameters. A variety of numerical results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based GDI Engine Calibration Adaptive Online DoE Approach

2002-03-04
2002-01-0708
Due to its high number of free parameters, the new generation of gasoline engines with direct injection require an efficient calibration process to handle the system complexity and to avoid a dramatic increase in calibration costs. This paper presents a concept of specific toolboxes within a standardized and automated calibration environment, supporting the complexity of GDI engines and establishing standard procedures for distributed development. The basic idea is the combination of a new and more efficient online DoE approach with the automatic and adaptive identification of the region of interest in the high dimensional parameter space. This guarantees efficient experimental designs even for highly non-linear systems with often irregularly shaped valid regions. As the main advantage for the calibration engineer, the new approach requires almost no pre-investigations and no specific statistical knowledge.
Technical Paper

Obstacle Detection for Power Operated Window-Lift and Sunroof Actuation Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0466
In order to prevent injuries due to automatic functions like express- and comfort-opening/closing of power operated window-lift and sunroof systems, mechanisms for detecting obstacles have to be established. The main related regulations are the 74/60/ECC and the FMVSS 118. In this paper we present a unified approach for smart actuators that bases on monitoring the rotational speed of the armature. The advantages have been worked out with the aid of system simulation and proven with tests under realistic and extreme scenarios. The presented results are mainly focused on a sunroof project, which is upcoming for an European car platform in 2001 and is specified to fulfill both regulations simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Human-Machine Interface: How to Make It Simple and Effective

2000-11-01
2000-01-C019
We are faced with a rapidly increasing flood of information to the driver. In addition to established information systems (car radio, vehicle monitoring, mobile phones), high class vehicles feature navigation systems almost as standard. In the next decade, driver assistance and collision mitigation systems will appear in vehicles. Hence, there is an increasing demand for supplying the driver with more information that help him to drive safer and more economical. In parallel, the price decline in the computer market and the availability of powerful graphic hard- and software concepts make it possible to enhance the classical functions of the instrument board to an interactive multifunctional information panel, and the dashboard will be the main interface between car and driver.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0970
Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

The Role of Climatic Conditions on Disc Brake Noise

2006-10-08
2006-01-3209
Since the brake colloquium in 2004 the role of climatic conditions and their relations to noise occurrence, sound pressure level and friction coefficient level is widely discussed in the US and European working groups on brake noise. A systematic study has been started to investigate the influence of relative humidity, absolute humidity and temperature on brake noise and the corresponding friction coefficient level. In this study an enormous effort was taken to keep the influences of the brake parameters, e.g. lining material, Eigenfrequencies and dimensions of the different components as small as possible to investigate the climatic influence only. Strategic humidity and temperature levels were tested according to the Mollier-Entropy-Enthalpy-Diagram which are corresponding to the seasons in the various international regions. A regression analysis evaluates the correlation and the influence of each parameter to noise and friction coefficient level.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

Technology For Electronic Diesel Control

2004-01-16
2004-28-0063
In the last decades the development of Diesel engines has made substantial progress. New, powerful and scalable injection systems have been introduced. In consequence Diesel systems are continuously gaining market share in many places of the world. Advanced direct injection engines with systems like the electronically controlled distributer pump, the unit injection system and of course the common rail system are replacing the chamber engines in all automotive applications. This is all unthinkable without the electronic management of these injection systems by means of Electronic Diesel Control units (EDC). The following presentation describes the status and some future trend of technology of EDCs with particular emphasis on functional and on software development. It also outlines the challenge of global automotive industry that requires global development and application services from its tier 1 suppliers.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Momentum and Heat Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

2005-04-11
2005-01-0037
Modern zirconia oxygen sensors are heated internally to achieve an optimal detection of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas and fast light off time. The temperature of the gas in the exhaust pipe varies in a wide range. The zirconia sensor is cooled by radiation and forced convection caused by cold exhaust gas. If the zirconia temperature falls, the oxygen detection capability of the sensor decreases. To minimize the cooling effects, protection tubes cover the zirconia sensor. However, this is in conflict with the aim to accelerate the dynamics of the lambda sensor. In this paper, the heat transfer at the surface of a heated planar zirconia sensor with two different double protection tubes of a Bosch oxygen sensor is examined in detail. The geometric configuration of the tubes forces different flow patterns in the inner protection tube around the zirconia sensor. The zirconia sensor is internally electrically heated by a platinum heater layer.
Technical Paper

IMEP-Estimation and In-Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for Multicylinder SI-Engine by Combined Processing of Engine Speed and One Cylinder Pressure

2005-04-11
2005-01-0053
In order to optimize the performance and emission of engines, advanced control and diagnostic systems require detailed feedback information about the combustion process. In this context, cost-effective solutions are of interest. The contribution describes a method for reconstructing cylinder-individual features of each combustion cycle by processing the instantaneous fluctuations of the engine speed and the in-cylinder pressure of one cylinder. Model-based torque estimation, analyzing both of the signals simultaneously, provides an accurate estimation of the mean indicated pressure. Using this method, a new algorithm for advanced misfire detection is presented. Furthermore, a new pressure model with a feasible number of parameters is proposed. It is combined with the torque estimation in order to reconstruct the unknown pressure traces of the cylinders not equipped with sensors.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Unburnt Hydrocarbon Emissions in a Homogeneous-Charge Late-Injection Diesel-Fueled Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1666
Strict NOx and soot emission regulations for Diesel engines have created an interest in low-temperature partially-homogeneous combustion regimes in both the US and Europe. One strategy, Homogeneous-Charge Late-Injection (HCLI) combustion utilizes 55% or more cooled external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) with a single Direct Injection strategy to control ignition timing. These engines are operated at low temperatures to ensure near zero NOx emissions, implying that fuel in the thermal boundary layers will not reach sufficient temperature to fully oxidize, resulting in Unburnt Hydrocarbon (UHC) and CO emissions. Of particular interest to HCLI engines are the UHC's that are not fully oxidized by the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). Experimental measurements reveal that at average equivalence ratios greater than 0.8, methane is the single largest tailpipe-out UHC emission.
Technical Paper

Bosch Motronic MED9.6.1 EMS Applied on a 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Direct Injection Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0133
Robert Bosch LLC North America has developed and calibrated an engine management system for gasoline direct injection engines. This system controls the General Motors 3.6L DOHC 4 valve V6 engine which features direct injection, variable valve timing and electronic throttle control. This engine powers the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. It is the first GM production direct injection V6 engine in North America. It produces 304 HP at 6500 rpm and 370 Nm torque at 5200 rpm. Emissions meet LEV2 Bin5 standards. Interesting features include wall guided direct fuel injection, homogeneous split injection for fast catalyst light off and one of the industry's first isolated injection systems for noise reduction. This paper provides an overview of the features of this system and focuses on the calibration development.
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