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Technical Paper

Early External Active Thermal Control for the International Space Station

The early external active thermal control system (EEATCS) is designed to cool the U.S. Laboratory (USL), during early assembly stages of the International Space Station (ISS), to support assured early research (AER). The ISS is assembled on orbit over a period of about 5 years and over 40 stages. During later stages, about half way through the assembly, the USL is cooled by the external active thermal control system (EATCS), but that system is not available during early stages. To assure research, during early stages, the USL is cooled by the EEATCS; at a later stage, the USL cooling is switched to EATCS. During early stages, electric power is provided by the integrated truss segment (ITS) P6, which consists of photovoltaic (PV) arrays to convert sunlight into direct current power, an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) to support hardware required to store and condition electric power, and a long spacer to provide spacing between outboard power modules.
Technical Paper

Gas Mass Flow Sensor Proof of Concept Testing for Space Shuttle Orbiter Flow Measurement

The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atmospheric Revitalization Pressure Control System (ARPCS) and the Fuel Cell System (FCS) use a hot wire anemometer type of gas mass flow sensor for flow measurement. In the ARPCS oxygen and nitrogen mass flows are measured and in the FCS oxygen and hydrogen mass flows are measured. The existing flow sensors suffer from certain accuracy limitations and potential failure modes. A new type of commercially developed solid state micro-machined silicon gas mass flow sensor developed by Honeywell was adapted to allow the technology to be assessed for the application. A demonstration test program has been conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new sensor for space system applications and environments. The testing was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).
Technical Paper

The Process Control System

Quality improvement has been an objective of many manufacturing operations. As the quality improvement thrust has made its way across America plants have attempted to improve quality through the use of SPC. While numerous operations believed that this was “the solution” to cure manufacturing problems, experience has shown that it is just a tool. Honest attempts to make SPC a success have forced a revaluation of the tool in light of management philosophy and worker involvement. The Process Control System (PCS) is a series of steps that has been learned in the school of hard knocks. It is considered to be the most efficient method of implementing true process control. The process goes far beyond the typical SPC training to Include setting the stage for the training, as well as a technical analysis of the factors and management culture that effect long term implementation.
Technical Paper

Keyboard Data Entry in Avionics

Operating procedures for keyboard data entry in avionics are analyzed. The type of information being entered may be identified either before or after entry of the alphanumeric characters. The keys which are used to identify the type of data may be collected in a centralized control unit or distributed throughout the cockpit adjacent to the associated displays. The Collins NCS-31 and the King KCU 565 navigation and control systems are discussed as illustrations of two sets of choices for operating procedures. Emphasis is placed upon correspondence between the thought processes associated with data entry and the pilot's actions in entering data.