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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Relationship Between DI Diesel Combustion Processes and Engine-Out Soot Using an Oxygenated Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-1400
The relationship between combustion processes and engine-out soot was investigated in an optically accessible DI diesel engine using diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DGE) fuel, a viable diesel oxygenate. The high oxygen content of DGE enables operation without soot emissions at higher loads than with a hydrocarbon fuel. The high cetane number of DGE enables operation at charge-gas temperatures below those required for current diesel fuels, which may be advantageous for reducing NOx emissions. In-cylinder optical measurements of flame lift-off length and natural luminosity were obtained simultaneously with engine-out soot measurements while varying charge-gas density and temperature. The local mixture stoichiometry at the lift-off length was characterized by a parameter called the oxygen ratio that was estimated from the measured flame lift-off length using an entrainment correlation for non-reacting sprays.
Technical Paper

Non-Sooting, Low Flame Temperature Mixing-Controlled DI Diesel Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-1399
Methods of producing non-sooting, low flame temperature diesel combustion were investigated in an optically-accessible, quiescent constant-volume combustion vessel. Combustion and soot formation processes of single, isolated fuel jets were studied after autoignition and transient premixed combustion and while the injector needle was fully open (i.e., during the quasi-steady mixing-controlled phase of heat-release for diesel combustion).The investigation showed that fuel jets that do not undergo soot formation in any region of the reacting jet and that also have a low flame temperature could be produced in at least three different ways during mixing-controlled combustion: First, using a #2 diesel fuel and an injector tip with a 50 micron orifice, a fuel jet was non-sooting in ambient oxygen concentrations as low as 10% (simulating the use of EGR) for typical diesel ambient temperatures (1000 K) and densities.
Technical Paper

Full Cycle CFD Simulations to Study Thermal and Chemical Effects of Fuel Injection during Negative Valve Overlap in an Automotive Research Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2236
Recently experiments were conducted on an automotive homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) research engine with a negative-valve-overlap (NVO) cam. In the study two sets of experiments were run. One set injected a small quantity of fuel (HPLC-grade iso-octane) during NVO in varying amounts and timings followed by a larger injection during the intake stroke. The other set of experiments was similar, but did not include an NVO injection. By comparing both sets of results researchers were able to investigate the use of NVO fuel injection to control main combustion phasing under light-load conditions. For this paper a subset of these experiments are modeled with the computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code KIVA3V [ 6 ] using a multi-zone combustion model. The computational domain includes the combustion chamber, and intake and exhaust valves, ports, and runners. Multiple cycles are run to minimize the influence of initial conditions on final simulated results.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline

2010-04-12
2010-01-1086
The potential of boosted HCCI for achieving high loads has been investigated for intake pressures (Piⁿ) from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 325 kPa absolute. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) equipped with a compression-ratio 14 piston at 1200 rpm. The intake charge was fully premixed well upstream of the intake, and the fuel was a research-grade (R+M)/2 = 87-octane gasoline with a composition typical of commercial gasolines. Beginning with Piⁿ = 100 kPa, the intake pressure was systematically increased in steps of 20 - 40 kPa, and for each Piⁿ, the fueling was incrementally increased up to the knock/stability limit, beyond which slight changes in combustion conditions can lead to strong knocking or misfire. A combination of reduced intake temperature and cooled EGR was used to compensate for the pressure-induced enhancement of autoignition and to provide sufficient combustion-phasing retard to control knock.
Journal Article

Determination of Cycle Temperatures and Residual Gas Fraction for HCCI Negative Valve Overlap Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0343
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap offers a promising method of controlling HCCI combustion, but sorting out the thermal and chemical effects of NVO fueling requires knowledge of temperatures throughout the cycle. Computing bulk temperatures throughout closed portions of the cycle is relatively straightforward using an equation of state, once a temperature at one crank angle is established. Unfortunately, computing charge temperatures at intake valve closing for NVO operation is complicated by a large, unknown fraction of residual gases at unknown temperature. To address the problem, we model blowdown and recompression during exhaust valve opening and closing events, allowing us to estimate in-cylinder charge temperatures based on exhaust-port measurements. This algorithm permits subsequent calculation of crank-angle-resolved bulk temperatures and residual gas fraction over a wide range of NVO operation.
Technical Paper

Detailed Investigation into the Effect of Ozone Addition on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition Engine Performance and Emissions Characteristics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0966
The impact of 50 ppm intake seeding of ozone (O3) on performance and emissions characteristics was explored in a single-cylinder research engine operated under lean spark assisted compression ignition (SACI) conditions. Optical access into the engine enabled complementary crank angle resolved measurements of in-cylinder O3 concentration via ultraviolet (UV) light absorption. Experiments were performed at moderate loads (4 - 5 bar indicated mean effective pressure) and low-to-moderate engine speeds (800 - 1400 revolutions per minute). Each operating condition featured a single early main injection and maximum brake torque spark timing. Intake pressure was fixed at 1.0 bar, while intake temperatures were varied between 42 - 80 °C. Moderate amounts of internal residuals (12 - 20%) were retained through the use of positive valve overlap. Ozone addition was to found stabilize combustion relative to similar conditions without O3 addition by promoting end gas auto-ignition.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Characteristic Time (CTC), Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF), and Direct Integration with Detailed Chemistry Combustion Models against Optical Diagnostic Data for Multi-Mode Combustion in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0055
Three different approaches for modeling diesel engine combustion are compared against cylinder pressure, NOx emissions, high-speed soot luminosity imaging, and 2-color thermometry data from a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. A characteristic time combustion (KIVA-CTC) model, a representative interactive flamelet (KIVA-RIF) model, and direct integration using detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN) were integrated into the same version of the KIVA-3v computer code. In this way, the computer code provides a common platform for comparing various combustion models. Five different engine operating strategies that are representative of several different combustion regimes were explored in the experiments and model simulations. Two of the strategies produce high-temperature combustion with different ignition delays, while the other three use dilution to achieve low-temperature combustion (LTC), with early, late, or multiple injections.
Technical Paper

EGR and Intake Boost for Managing HCCI Low-Temperature Heat Release over Wide Ranges of Engine Speed

2007-01-23
2007-01-0051
Reaching for higher loads and improving combustion-phasing control are important challenges for HCCI research. Although HCCI engines can operate with a variety of fuels, recent research has shown that fuels with two-stage autoignition have some significant advantages for overcoming these challenges. Because the amount of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is proportional to the local equivalence ratio (ϕ), fuel stratification can be used to adjust the combustion phasing (CA50) and/or burn duration using various fuel-injection strategies. Two-stage ignition fuels also allow stable combustion even for extensive combustion-phasing retard, which reduces the knocking propensity. Finally, the LTHR reduces the required intake temperature, which increases the inducted charge mass for a given intake pressure, allowing higher fueling rates before knocking and NOx emissions become a problem. However, the amount of LTHR is normally highly dependent on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Overview of Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

1999-04-27
1999-01-2246
The objectives of this paper are to describe the ongoing projects in diesel engine combustion research at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to detail recent experimental results. The approach we are employing is to assemble experimental hardware that mimic realistic engine geometries while enabling optical access. For example, we are using multi-cylinder engine heads or one-cylinder versions of production heads mated to one-cylinder engine blocks. Optical access is then obtained through a periscope in an exhaust valve, quartz windows in the piston crown, windows in spacer plates just below the head, or quartz cylinder liners. We have three diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, and a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Scavenging System for a Two-Stroke Cycle, Free Piston Engine for High Efficiency and Low Emissions: A Computational Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-0001
A free piston internal combustion (IC) engine operating on high compression ratio (CR) homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories to significantly improve the thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions relative to conventional crankshaft-driven SI and Diesel engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is key to realizing the efficiency and emissions potential of the device. To ensure that the engine's performance goals can be achieved the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), zero- and one-dimensional modeling, and single step parametric variations. A wide range of design options was investigated including the use of loop, hybrid-loop and uniflow scavenging methods, different charge delivery options, and various operating schemes. Parameters such as the intake/exhaust port arrangement, valve lift/timing, charging pressure and piston frequency were varied.
Technical Paper

End-of-Injection Over-Mixing and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Low-Temperature-Combustion Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0907
Although low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines can achieve very low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) at high efficiency, they typically have increased emissions of other pollutants, including unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). In the current study, the equivalence ratio of mixtures near the injector are quantified under non-combusting conditions by planar laser-Rayleigh scattering (PLRS) in a constant-volume combustion chamber and by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer (toluene) in a single-cylinder direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine at typical LTC conditions. The optical diagnostic images show that the transient ramp-down at the end of fuel injection produces a low-momentum, fuel-lean mixture in the upstream region of the jet, which persists late in the cycle.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Direct Injection Processes for Hydrogen and LTC Engine Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0939
Direct injection (DI) has proven to be a promising option in Diesel and low temperature combustion engines. In conventional Diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) applications, DI lowers soot and NOx production and improves fuel economy. In hydrogen fueled engines, DI provides the appropriate energy density required for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. To realize the full benefit of DI, however, the effect of various injection parameters, such as injection timing, duration, pressure, and dilution, must be investigated and optimized under a range of engine operating conditions. In this work, we have developed a model for high-fidelity calculations of DI processes using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique and an advanced property evaluation scheme. Calculations were performed using an idealized domain to establish a baseline level of validation.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Residual and Fresh Charge Mixing in a Modern SI Engine Using Spontaneous Raman Scattering

1999-03-01
1999-01-1106
Line-imaging of Raman scattered light is used to simultaneously measure the mole fractions of CO2, H2O, N2, O2, and fuel (premixed C3H8) in a modern 4-valve spark-ignition engine operating at idle. The measurement volume consists of 16 adjacent sub-volumes, each 0.27 mm in diameter × 0.91 mm long, giving a total measurement length of 14.56 mm. Measurements are made 3 mm under the centrally-located spark plug, offset 3 mm from the spark plug center towards the exhaust valves. Data are taken in 15 crank angle degree increments starting from top center before the intake stroke (-360 CAD) through top center of the compression stroke (0 CAD).
Technical Paper

Modeling Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps Under Reducing Conditions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3446
A set of elementary surface reactions is proposed for modeling the chemistry in a lean NOx trap during regeneration (reduction of stored NOx). The proposed reaction mechanism can account for the observed product distribution from the trap over a range of temperatures and inlet gas compositions similar to those expected for realistic operation. The mechanism includes many reactions already discussed in the literature, together with some hypothesized reactions that are required to match observations from temperature programmed reactor experiments with a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Preliminary results indicate that the NOx trap regeneration and byproduct formation rates can be effectively captured by using a relatively compact set of elementary reactions.
Technical Paper

Predicting NOX Emissions from HCCI Engines Using LIF Imaging

2006-04-03
2006-01-0025
Our previous work applied LIF measurements of in-cylinder fuel distribution to predict CO2, CO, and HC emissions from an HCCI engine under low-load stratified-charge conditions. The prediction method is based on the premise that local fuel-air packets at a given equivalence ratio (characterized using LIF imaging) burn as if in a homogeneous charge at the same equivalence ratio. Thus, emissions measured during homogeneous operation provide an emission-versus- equivalence-ratio look-up table for predicting stratified-charge emissions. The present paper extends the technique to predict engine-out NOX emissions. Because of operating-range limitations, NOX look-up data for homogeneous operation cannot adequately be determined by experiment. Instead, a CHEMKIN-based model provides this look-up table data instead.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single and Dual Spray Fuel Injectors During Cold Start of a PFI Spark Ignition Engine Using Visualization of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires

2005-10-24
2005-01-3863
Video imaging has been used to investigate the evolution of liquid fuel films on combustion chamber walls during a simulated cold start of a port fuel-injected engine. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine with a production, four-valve head and a window in the piston crown. Flood-illuminated laser-induced fluorescence was used to observe the fuel films directly, and color video recording of visible emission from pool fires due to burning fuel films was used as an indirect measure of film location. The imaging techniques were applied to a comparative study of single and dual spray fuel injectors for both open and closed valve injection, for coolant temperatures of 20, 40 and 60°C. In general, for all cases it is shown that fuel films form in the vicinity of the intake valve seats.
Journal Article

Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Mixture Development and Late-Injection Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1330
Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for diesel engines are of increasing interest because of their potential to significantly reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. LTC with late fuel injection further offers the benefit of combustion phasing control because ignition is closely coupled to the fuel injection event. But with a short ignition-delay, fuel jet mixing processes must be rapid to achieve adequate premixing before ignition. In the current study, mixing and pollutant formation of late-injection LTC are studied in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine using three laser-based imaging diagnostics. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and combined formaldehyde (H2CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are compared with vapor-fuel concentration measurements from a non-combusting condition.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Influence of Soot Radiation on In-Cylinder Temperatures and Exhaust NOx in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0925
It is generally accepted that thermal (Zeldo'vich) chemical kinetics dominate NO formation in diesel engines, so control of temperature is critical for reducing exhaust NOx emissions. Recent optical engine data revealed that when the start of injection (SOI) was retarded to very late timings, combustion luminosity decreased while exhaust NOx emissions increased, causing a “NOx bump.” This data suggested that changes in radiative heat transfer from soot may affect in-cylinder temperatures and subsequent NOx formation. In this study, soot thermometry measurements of in-cylinder temperature and radiative heat transfer were correlated with exhaust NOx to quantify the role of radiative heat transfer on in-cylinder temperatures and NOx formation. The engine was operated at low-load conditions, for which the premixed burn was a significant fraction of the total heat release.
Technical Paper

Novel Three-Dimensional Ceramic Lattices as Catalyst Supports and Diesel Particulate Traps

2003-03-03
2003-01-0838
A novel direct-fabrication technique (robocasting) was used to produce periodic lattices of ceramic rods. The macrostructure is a three-dimensional mesh with controlled porosity in all dimensions but no line-of-sight pathways. These ceramic lattices can function as catalyst supports for gas combustion, and possibly self-regenerating filters for diesel particulates. Compared to the traditional two-dimensional “honeycomb” structured extrudates, the three-dimensional structures have high surface to volume ratios and highly turbulent flow. The flow behaviors of these ceramic lattices and the resulting enhancements in catalytic performance over traditional supports have been demonstrated for propane and methane combustion. Similar tests are underway for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. The potential utility of these structures for diesel particulate trapping will also be discussed.
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