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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Relationship Between DI Diesel Combustion Processes and Engine-Out Soot Using an Oxygenated Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-1400
The relationship between combustion processes and engine-out soot was investigated in an optically accessible DI diesel engine using diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DGE) fuel, a viable diesel oxygenate. The high oxygen content of DGE enables operation without soot emissions at higher loads than with a hydrocarbon fuel. The high cetane number of DGE enables operation at charge-gas temperatures below those required for current diesel fuels, which may be advantageous for reducing NOx emissions. In-cylinder optical measurements of flame lift-off length and natural luminosity were obtained simultaneously with engine-out soot measurements while varying charge-gas density and temperature. The local mixture stoichiometry at the lift-off length was characterized by a parameter called the oxygen ratio that was estimated from the measured flame lift-off length using an entrainment correlation for non-reacting sprays.
Technical Paper

Non-Sooting, Low Flame Temperature Mixing-Controlled DI Diesel Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-1399
Methods of producing non-sooting, low flame temperature diesel combustion were investigated in an optically-accessible, quiescent constant-volume combustion vessel. Combustion and soot formation processes of single, isolated fuel jets were studied after autoignition and transient premixed combustion and while the injector needle was fully open (i.e., during the quasi-steady mixing-controlled phase of heat-release for diesel combustion).The investigation showed that fuel jets that do not undergo soot formation in any region of the reacting jet and that also have a low flame temperature could be produced in at least three different ways during mixing-controlled combustion: First, using a #2 diesel fuel and an injector tip with a 50 micron orifice, a fuel jet was non-sooting in ambient oxygen concentrations as low as 10% (simulating the use of EGR) for typical diesel ambient temperatures (1000 K) and densities.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline

2010-04-12
2010-01-1086
The potential of boosted HCCI for achieving high loads has been investigated for intake pressures (Piⁿ) from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 325 kPa absolute. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) equipped with a compression-ratio 14 piston at 1200 rpm. The intake charge was fully premixed well upstream of the intake, and the fuel was a research-grade (R+M)/2 = 87-octane gasoline with a composition typical of commercial gasolines. Beginning with Piⁿ = 100 kPa, the intake pressure was systematically increased in steps of 20 - 40 kPa, and for each Piⁿ, the fueling was incrementally increased up to the knock/stability limit, beyond which slight changes in combustion conditions can lead to strong knocking or misfire. A combination of reduced intake temperature and cooled EGR was used to compensate for the pressure-induced enhancement of autoignition and to provide sufficient combustion-phasing retard to control knock.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Effects of Fuel Properties and Engine Load on UHC and CO Emissions from a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

2010-05-05
2010-01-1470
The behavior of the engine-out UHC and CO emissions from a light-duty diesel optical engine operating at two PPCI conditions was investigated for fifteen different fuels, including diesel fuels, biofuel blends, n-heptane-iso-octane mixtures, and n-cetane-HMN mixtures. The two highly dilute (9-10% O₂) early direct injection PPCI conditions included a low speed (1500 RPM) and load (3.0 bar IMEP) case~where the UHC and CO have been found to stem from overly-lean fuel-air mixtures~and a condition with a relatively higher speed (2000 RPM) and load (6.0 bar IMEP)~where globally richer mixtures may lead to different sources of UHC and CO. The main objectives of this work were to explore the general behavior of the UHC and CO emissions from early-injection PPCI combustion and to gain an understanding of how fuel properties and engine load affect the engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Isopentanol as a Fuel for HCCI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2164
Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C 4 -C 5 alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C 5 alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of UHC and CO Sources from Biodiesel Blends in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operating in a Partially Premixed Combustion Regime

2010-04-12
2010-01-0862
The influence of soy- and palm-based biofuels on the in-cylinder sources of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in an optically accessible research engine operating in a partially premixed, low-temperature combustion regime. The biofuels were blended with an emissions certification grade diesel fuel and the soy-based biofuel was also tested neat. Cylinder pressure and emissions of UHC, CO, soot, and NOx were obtained to characterize global fuel effects on combustion and emissions. Planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to capture the spatial distribution of fuel and partial oxidation products within the clearance and bowl volumes of the combustion chamber. In addition, late-cycle (30° and 50° aTDC) semi-quantitative CO distributions were measured above the piston within the clearance volume using a deep-UV LIF technique.
Journal Article

Liquid Penetration of Diesel and Biodiesel Sprays at Late-Cycle Post-Injection Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0610
The liquid and vapor-phase spray penetrations of #2 diesel and neat (100%) soybean-derived biodiesel have been studied at late expansion-cycle conditions in a constant-volume optical chamber. In modern diesel engines, late-cycle staged injections may be used to assist in the operation of exhaust stream aftertreatment devices. These late-cycle injections occur well after top-dead-center (TDC), when post-combustion temperatures are relatively high and densities are low. The behavior of diesel sprays under these conditions has not been well-established in the literature. In the current work, high-speed Mie-scatter and schlieren imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber to characterize the transient and quasi-steady liquid penetration behavior of diesel sprays under conditions relevant for late-cycle post injections, with very low densities (1.2 - 3 kg/m 3 ) and moderately high temperatures (800 - 1400 K).
Journal Article

Effect of Post Injections on In-Cylinder and Exhaust Soot for Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0612
Multiple fuel-injections during a single engine cycle can reduce combustion noise and improve pollutant emissions tradeoffs. Various hypotheses have been proposed in the literature regarding the in-cylinder processes responsible for the pollutant emissions improvements. This paper provides a brief overview of these hypotheses along with an investigation exploring which of these mechanisms are important for post injections under low-temperature combustion (LTC) conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In-cylinder soot and exhaust smoke are measured by 2-color soot thermometry and filter paper blackening, respectively. The evolution and interaction of soot regions from each of the injections is visualized using high-speed imaging of soot luminosity, both in the piston bowl and in the squish regions.
Journal Article

Ethanol Autoignition Characteristics and HCCI Performance for Wide Ranges of Engine Speed, Load and Boost

2010-04-12
2010-01-0338
The characteristics of ethanol autoignition and the associated HCCI performance are examined in this work. The experiments were conducted over wide ranges of engine speed, load and intake boost pressure (Piⁿ) in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) with a CR = 14 piston. The data show that pure ethanol is a true single-stage ignition fuel. It does not exhibit low-temperature heat release (LTHR), not even for boosted operation. This makes ethanol uniquely different from conventional distillate fuels and offers several benefits: a) The intake temperature (Tiⁿ) does not have to be adjusted much with changes of engine speed, load and intake boost pressure. b) High Piⁿ can be tolerated without running out of control authority because of an excessively low Tiⁿ requirement. However, by maintaining true single-stage ignition characteristics, ethanol also shows a relatively low temperature-rise rate just prior to its hot ignition point.
Technical Paper

Φ-Sensitivity for LTGC Engines: Understanding the Fundamentals and Tailoring Fuel Blends to Maximize This Property

2019-04-02
2019-01-0961
Φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. A fuel is φ-sensitive if its autoignition reactivity varies with the fuel/air equivalence ratio (φ). Thus, multiple-injection strategies can be used to create a φ-distribution that leads to several benefits. First, the φ-distribution causes a sequential autoignition that reduces the maximum heat release rate. This allows higher loads without knock and/or advanced combustion timing for higher efficiencies. Second, combustion phasing can be controlled by adjusting the fuel-injection strategy. Finally, experiments show that intermediate-temperature heat release (ITHR) increases with φ-sensitivity, increasing the allowable combustion retard and improving stability. A detailed mechanism was applied using CHEMKIN to understand the chemistry responsible for φ-sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Detailed Investigation into the Effect of Ozone Addition on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition Engine Performance and Emissions Characteristics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0966
The impact of 50 ppm intake seeding of ozone (O3) on performance and emissions characteristics was explored in a single-cylinder research engine operated under lean spark assisted compression ignition (SACI) conditions. Optical access into the engine enabled complementary crank angle resolved measurements of in-cylinder O3 concentration via ultraviolet (UV) light absorption. Experiments were performed at moderate loads (4 - 5 bar indicated mean effective pressure) and low-to-moderate engine speeds (800 - 1400 revolutions per minute). Each operating condition featured a single early main injection and maximum brake torque spark timing. Intake pressure was fixed at 1.0 bar, while intake temperatures were varied between 42 - 80 °C. Moderate amounts of internal residuals (12 - 20%) were retained through the use of positive valve overlap. Ozone addition was to found stabilize combustion relative to similar conditions without O3 addition by promoting end gas auto-ignition.
Technical Paper

Dilution and Injection Pressure Effects on Ignition and Onset of Soot at Threshold-Sooting Conditions by Simultaneous PAH-PLIF and Soot-PLII Imaging in a Heavy Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0553
Although accumulated in-cylinder soot can be measured by various optical techniques, discerning soot formation rates from oxidation rates is more difficult. Various optical measurements have pointed toward ways to affect in-cylinder soot oxidation, but evidence of effects of operational variables on soot formation is less plentiful. The formation of soot and its precursors, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are strongly dependent on temperature, so factors affecting soot formation may be more evident at low-temperature combustion conditions. Here, in-cylinder PAHs are imaged by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PAH-PLIF) using three different excitation wavelengths of 355, 532, and 633 nm, to probe three different size-classes of PAH from 2-3 to 10+ rings. Simultaneous planar laser-induced incandescence of soot (soot-PLII) using 1064-nm excitation provides complementary imaging of soot formation near inception.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Soot Formation/Oxidation Characteristics of Compositionally Unique International Diesel Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0548
With the global adoption of diesel common rail systems and the wide variation in composition of local commercial fuels, modern fuel injection systems must be robust against diverse fuel properties. To bridge the knowledge gap on the effects of compositional variation for real commercial fuels on spray combustion characteristics, the present work quantifies ignition and soot formation/oxidation in three unique, international diesel blends. Schlieren imaging, excited-state hydroxyl radical (OH*) chemiluminescence imaging and diffused back-illumination extinction imaging were employed to quantify vapor penetration, ignition, and soot formation and oxidation for high-pressure sprays in a constant-volume, pre-burn chamber. The three fuels were procured from Finland, Japan and Brazil and have cetane numbers of 64.1, 56.1 and 45.4, respectively.
Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs (12:1 and 10:1). The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Acquisition of Corresponding Fuel Distribution and Emissions Measurements in HCCI Engines

2005-10-24
2005-01-3748
Optical engines are often skip-fired to maintain optical components at acceptable temperatures and to reduce window fouling. Although many different skip-fired sequences are possible, if exhaust emissions data are required, the skip-firing sequence ought to consist of a single fired cycle followed by a series of motored cycles (referred to here as singleton skip-firing). This paper compares a singleton skip-firing sequence with continuous firing at the same inlet conditions, and shows that combustion performance trends with equivalence ratio are similar. However, as expected, reactant temperatures are lower with skip-firing, resulting in retarded combustion phasing, and lower pressures and combustion efficiency. LIF practitioners often employ a homogeneous charge of known composition to create calibration images for converting raw signal to equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Characteristic Time (CTC), Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF), and Direct Integration with Detailed Chemistry Combustion Models against Optical Diagnostic Data for Multi-Mode Combustion in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0055
Three different approaches for modeling diesel engine combustion are compared against cylinder pressure, NOx emissions, high-speed soot luminosity imaging, and 2-color thermometry data from a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. A characteristic time combustion (KIVA-CTC) model, a representative interactive flamelet (KIVA-RIF) model, and direct integration using detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN) were integrated into the same version of the KIVA-3v computer code. In this way, the computer code provides a common platform for comparing various combustion models. Five different engine operating strategies that are representative of several different combustion regimes were explored in the experiments and model simulations. Two of the strategies produce high-temperature combustion with different ignition delays, while the other three use dilution to achieve low-temperature combustion (LTC), with early, late, or multiple injections.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Chemical Effects of EGR and Its Constituents on HCCI Autoignition

2007-04-16
2007-01-0207
EGR can be used beneficially to control combustion phasing in HCCI engines. To better understand the function of EGR, this study experimentally investigates the thermodynamic and chemical effects of real EGR, simulated EGR, dry EGR, and individual EGR constituents (N2, CO2, and H2O) on the autoignition processes. This was done for gasoline and various PRF blends. The data show that addition of real EGR retards the autoignition timing for all fuels. However, the amount of retard is dependent on the specific fuel type. This can be explained by identifying and quantifying the various underlying mechanisms, which are: 1) Thermodynamic cooling effect due to increased specific-heat capacity, 2) [O2] reduction effect, 3) Enhancement of autoignition due to the presence of H2O, 4) Enhancement or suppression of autoignition due to the presence of trace species such as unburned or partially-oxidized hydrocarbons.
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