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Technical Paper

Future Fuels for DISI Engines: A Review on Oxygenated, Liquid Biofuels

Global warming and climate change have led to a greater interest in the implementation of biofuels in internal combustion engines. In spark ignited engines, biofuels have been shown to improve efficiency and knock resistance while decreasing emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particles. This study investigates the effect of biofuels on SI engine combustion through a graphical compilation of previously reported results. Experimental data from 88 articles were used to evaluate the trends of the addition of different biofuels in gasoline. Graphs illustrating engine performance, combustion phasing and emissions are presented in conjunction with data on the physiochemical properties of each biofuel component to understand the observed trends. Internal combustion engines have the ability to handle a wide variety of fuels resulting in a broad range of biofuel candidates.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of On-Engine Surge Detection Algorithms using Knock Accelerometers

On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Journal Article

A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO , during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array).
Journal Article

An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue

In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
Journal Article

Cylinder Pressure-Based Virtual Sensor for In-Cycle Pilot Mass Estimation

In this article, a virtual sensor for the estimation of the injected pilot mass in-cycle is proposed. The method provides an early estimation of the pilot mass before its combustion is finished. Furthermore, the virtual sensor can also estimate pilot masses when its combustion is incomplete. The pilot mass estimation is conducted by comparing the calculated heat release from in-cylinder pressure measurements to a model of the vaporization delay, ignition delay, and the combustion dynamics. A new statistical approach is proposed for the detection of the start of vaporization and the start of combustion. The discrete estimations, obtained at the start of vaporization and the start of combustion, are optimally combined and integrated in a Kalman Filter that estimates the pilot mass during the vaporization and combustion. The virtual sensor was programmed in a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and its performance tested in a Scania D13 Diesel engine.