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Technical Paper

Validation of a Simplified Model for Combustion and Emission Formation in Diesel Engines Based on Correlations for Spray Penetration and Dispersion, Gas Entrainment into Sprays and Flame Lift-off

2010-05-05
2010-01-1494
A simplified combustion and emission formation model for diesel engines has been developed in a project where the long term objective is to predict emissions during transient operation. The intended application implies that the final model must be both computationally inexpensive and comprehensive so that it can be used for optimization of engine control variables when coupled to full-engine simulation software. As starting point, the proposed model uses diesel spray correlations established in combustion vessels regarding spray penetration, dispersion, gas entrainment, ignition and flame lift-off. It has been found that with minor adaption, these correlations are valid also for combustion in an engine. By assuming a fully mixing controlled combustion after ignition and by use of simplified emission models, the correlations have been found useful for predicting trends in engine-out emission with low computational cost.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Fuel Spray Formation and its Influence on Exhaust Emissions Using an Optical Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1498
Increasingly stringent emission legislation as well as increased demand on fuel efficiency calls for further research and development in the diesel engine field. Spray formation, evaporation and ignition delay are important factors that influence the combustion and emission formation processes in a diesel engine. Increased understanding of the mixture formation process is valuable in the development of low emission, high efficiency diesel engines. In this paper spray formation and ignition under real engine conditions have been studied in an optical engine capable of running close to full load for a real HD diesel engine. Powerful external lights were used to provide the required light intensity for high speed camera images in the combustion chamber prior to ignition. A specially developed software was used for spray edge detection and tracking. The software provides crank angle resolved spray penetration data.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Engine Intake Manifold Pressure Virtual Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-1170
Increasing demands for more efficient engines and stricter legislations on exhaust emissions require more accurate control of the engine operating parameters. Engine control is based on sensors monitoring the condition of the engine. Numerous sensors, in a complex control context, increase the complexity, the fragility and the cost of the system. An alternative to physical sensors are virtual sensors, observers used to monitor parameters of the engine thus reducing both the fragility and the production cost but with a slight increase of the complexity. In the current paper a virtual intake manifold cylinder port pressure sensor is presented. The virtual sensor is based on a compressible flow model and on the pressure signal of the intake manifold pressure sensor. It uses the linearized pressure coefficient approach to keep vital performance behaviors while still conserving calibration effort and embedded system memory.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0687
Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

Radiocarbon and Hydrocarbon Analysis of PM Sources During WHTC Tests on a Biodiesel-Fueled Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1243
PM in diesel exhaust has been given much attention due to its adverse effect on both climate and health. As the PM emission levels are tightened, the portion of particles originating from the lubrication oil is likely to increase. In this study, exhausts from a biodiesel-fueled Euro 5 engine were examined to determine how much of the carbonaceous particles that originated from the fuel and the lubrication oil, respectively. A combination of three methods was used to determine the PM origin: chain length analysis of the hydrocarbons, determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and the concentration of 14C found in the exhausts. It was found that the standard method for measuring hydrocarbons in PM on a filter (chain length analysis) only accounted for 63 % of the OC, meaning that it did not account for all non-soot carbon in the exhausts.
Technical Paper

High Performance Planetary Gears for Heavy Duty Automotive Transmissions

2005-11-01
2005-01-3644
Planetary gears in heavy truck gearboxes are normally manufactured by forging a blank, turning, hobbing, shaving and heat-treatment followed by grinding. Due to the size of the gear the net shape capability of PM methods can be cost effective alternatively to conventional manufacturing. Warm compaction and surface densification are two PM methods to reach high density and thereby high strength and fatigue properties. Typical characteristics for PM gears manufactured by these methods are outlined.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Intake CO2-level during Load Transients on a 1-Cylinder Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0039
For diesel engines the major exhaust problem is particulate matter and NOx emissions. To reduce NOx, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is often used. The behavior of the EGR-level will therefore influence the emissions and it is therefore valuable to keep track of the EGR-level. Especially during transients it is difficult to predict how the EGR-level varies. In this paper the CO2-level in the intake is modeled on a 1-cylinder diesel engine to predict the in cylinder behavior during transients. The model is based on simple thermodynamics together with the ideal gas law. Using this, the model is validated by experimental data during transients and the correlation between model and experiment is shown to be strong. Furthermore, the total tank volume is decreased to achieve a faster mixing with the intention of simulating the behavior of the CO2-level in a full-size engine which has a higher gas flow.
Journal Article

The Cooling Airflow of Heavy Trucks - a Parametric Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-1171
In order to maximize the cooling performance of road vehicles one must be familiar with and understand the behavior and character of the underhood flow system. Critical features, such as bottle necks, must be isolated and modified in order to improve the performance. The underhood flow system can be thought of as a network of subsystems, among which no one can be neglected since they are all, in some way, linked. This paper describes the general character of the cooling airflow on Scania heavy trucks. The variation of installation parameters and studies of different design concepts reveals the sensitivity and complexity of the cooling airflow. The results indicate, among other things, that the depth and also the shape of the fan shroud are of great importance. From the results also the influence from flow uniformity on the pressure loss and cooling capacity is obtained.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Soot Particles in the Cylinder of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with High EGR

2015-09-06
2015-24-2448
When applying high amount of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) using diesel fuel, an increase in soot emission is observed as a penalty. To better understand how EGR affects soot particles in the cylinder, a fast gas sampling technique was used to draw gas samples directly out of the combustion chamber in a Scania D13 heavy duty diesel engine. The samples were characterized on-line using a scanning mobility particle sizer for soot size distributions and an aethalometer for black carbon (soot) mass concentrations. Three EGR rates, 0%, 56% and 64% were applied in the study. It was found that EGR reduces both the soot formation rate and the soot oxidation rate, due to lower flame temperature and a lower availability of oxidizing agents. With higher EGR rates, the peak soot mass concentration decreased. However, the oxidation rate was reduced even more.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between In-Cylinder PIV Measurements, CFD Simulations and Steady-Flow Impulse Torque Swirl Meter Measurements

2003-10-27
2003-01-3147
In-cylinder flow measurements, conventional swirl measurements and CFD-simulations have been performed and then compared. The engine studied is a single cylinder version of a Scania D12 that represents a modern heavy-duty truck size engine. Bowditch type optical access and flat piston is used. The cylinder head was also measured in a steady-flow impulse torque swirl meter. From the two-dimensional flow-field, which was measured in the interval from -200° ATDC to 65° ATDC at two different positions from the cylinder head, calculations of the vorticity, turbulence and swirl were made. A maximum in swirl occurs at about 50° before TDC while the maximum vorticity and turbulence occurs somewhat later during the compression stroke. The swirl centre is also seen moving around and it does not coincide with the geometrical centre of the cylinder. The simulated flow-field shows similar behaviour as that seen in the measurements.
Technical Paper

Transient Emission Predictions With Quasi Stationary Models

2005-10-24
2005-01-3852
Heavy trucks contribute significantly to the overall air pollution, especially NOx and PM emissions. Models to predict the emissions from heavy trucks in real world on road conditions are therefore of great interest. Most such models are based on data achieved from stationary measurements, i.e. engine maps. This type of “quasi stationary” models could also be of interest in other applications where emission models of low complexity are desired, such as engine control and simulation and control of exhaust aftertreatment systems. In this paper, results from quasi stationary calculations of fuel consumption, CO, HC, NOx and PM emissions are compared with time resolved measurements of the corresponding quantities. Measurement data from three Euro 3-class engines is used. The differences are discussed in terms of the conditions during transients and correction models for quasi stationary calculations are presented. Simply using engine maps without transient correction is not sufficient.
Technical Paper

Study of a Heavy Duty Euro5 EGR-Engine Sensitivity to Fuel Change with Emphasis on Combustion and Emission Formation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0872
A diesel engine developed for an international market must be able to run on different fuels considering the diesel fuel qualities and the increasing selection of biofuels in the world. This leads to the question of how different fuels perform relative to a standard diesel fuel when not changing the hardware settings. In this study five fuels (Japanese diesel, MK3, EN590 with 10% RME, EN590 with 30% RME and pure RME) have been compared to a reference diesel fuel (Swedish MK1) when run on three different speeds and three different loads at each speed. The experiments are run on a Scania 13l Euro5 engine with standard settings for Swedish MK1 diesel. In general the differences were not large between the fuels. NO x usually increased compared to MK1 and then soot decreased as would be expected. The combustion efficiency increased with increased RME contents of the fuel but the indicated efficiency was not influenced by RME except for at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of a Combined EGR/SCR HD Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1175
Achieving upcoming HD emissions legislation, Euro VI/EPA 10, is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. A likely solution to meet the NOx limit is to use a combination of EGR and SCR. Combining these two technologies poses new challenges and possibilities when it comes to optimization and calibration. Using a complete system approach, i.e., considering the engine and the aftertreatment system as a single unit, is important in order to achieve good performance. Optimizing the complete system is a tedious task; first there are a large number of variables which affect both emissions and fuel consumption (injection timing, EGR rate, urea dosing, injection pressure, pilot/post injections, for example). Secondly, the chemical reactions in the SCR catalyst are substantially slower than the dynamics of the diesel engine and the rest of the system, making the optimization problem time dependent.
Journal Article

Design of a Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery Application on a Drivable Heavy Duty Vehicle

2017-04-11
2017-01-9178
The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
Journal Article

Towards a Model for Engine Oil Hydrocarbon Particulate Matter

2010-10-25
2010-01-2098
The drive to reduce particle emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines has reached the stage where the contribution from the lubricant can have a major impact on the total amount of particulate matter (PM). This paper proposes a model to predict the survival rate (unburnt oil divided by oil consumption) of the hydrocarbons from the lubricant consumed in the cylinder. The input data are oil consumption and cylinder temperature versus crank angle. The proposed model was tuned to correlate well with data from a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine that meets the Euro 5 legislation without exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measured (and modelled) oil survival shows a strong correlation with engine power. The maximum oil survival rate measured (19%) was at motoring conditions at high speed. For this engine, loads above 100 kW yielded an oil survival rate of nearly zero.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Blockage Effects on Heavy Trucks in Full Scale Test Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1607
The effect of blockage due to the presence of the wind tunnel walls has been known since the early days of wind tunnel testing. Today there are several blockage correction methods available for correcting the measured aerodynamic drag. Due to the shape of the test object, test conditions and wind tunnel dimensions the effect on the flow may be different for two cab variants. This will result in a difference in the drag delta between so-called open-road conditions and the wind tunnel. This makes it more difficult to evaluate the performance of two different test objects when they are both tested in a wind tunnel and simulated in CFD. A numerical study where two different cab shapes were compared in both open road condition, and in a digital wind tunnel environment was performed.
Technical Paper

Future Fuels for DISI Engines: A Review on Oxygenated, Liquid Biofuels

2019-01-15
2019-01-0036
Global warming and climate change have led to a greater interest in the implementation of biofuels in internal combustion engines. In spark ignited engines, biofuels have been shown to improve efficiency and knock resistance while decreasing emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particles. This study investigates the effect of biofuels on SI engine combustion through a graphical compilation of previously reported results. Experimental data from 88 articles were used to evaluate the trends of the addition of different biofuels in gasoline. Graphs illustrating engine performance, combustion phasing and emissions are presented in conjunction with data on the physiochemical properties of each biofuel component to understand the observed trends. Internal combustion engines have the ability to handle a wide variety of fuels resulting in a broad range of biofuel candidates.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Speed Estimation via Vibration Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0632
Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Influence of Variable In-Cylinder Flow, Caused by Active Valve Train, on Combustion and Emissions in a Diesel Engine at Low Lambda Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1830
Spray and mixture formation in a compression ignition engine is of paramount importance for diesel combustion. In engine transient operation, when the load increases rapidly, the combustion system needs to handle low lambda (λ) operation while avoiding high particle emissions. Single-cylinder tests were performed to evaluate the effect of differences in cylinder flow on combustion and emissions at typical low λ transient operation. The tests were performed on a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine with Lotus Active Valve Train (AVT) controlling the inlet airflow. The required swirl number (SN) and tumble were controlled by applying different inlet valve profiles and opening either both inlet valves or only one or the other. The operating point of interest was extracted from engine transient conditions before the boost pressure was increased and investigated further at steady state conditions.
Journal Article

Guided Integrated Remote and Workshop Troubleshooting of Heavy Trucks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0284
When a truck or bus suffers from a breakdown it is important that the vehicle comes back on the road as soon as possible. In this paper we present a prototype diagnostic decision support system capable of automatically identifying possible causes of a failure and propose recommended actions on how to get the vehicle back on the road as cost efficiently as possible. This troubleshooting system is novel in the way it integrates the remote diagnosis with the workshop diagnosis when providing recommendations. To achieve this integration, a novel planning algorithm has been developed that enables the troubleshooting system to guide the different users (driver, help-desk operator, and mechanic) through the entire troubleshooting process. In this paper we formulate the problem of integrated remote and workshop troubleshooting and present a working prototype that has been implemented to demonstrate all parts of the troubleshooting system.
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