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Technical Paper

Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Oxygenate Fuel Blends

2007-04-16
2007-01-0472
The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Exhaust gas fuel reforming for IC Engines using diesel type fuels

2007-07-23
2007-01-2044
Control of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines remains a significant challenge. One approach to reduce both emissions simultaneously without fuel economy penalty is the reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR) technique, where part of the fuel is catalytically reacted with hot engine exhaust gas to produce a hydrogen-rich combustible gas that is then fed to the engine. On the contrary to fuel cell technology where the reforming requirements are to produce a reformate with maximized H2 concentration and minimized (virtually zero) CO concentration, the key requirement of the application of the exhaust gas fuel reforming technique in engines is the efficient on-demand generation of a reformate with only a relatively low concentration of hydrogen (typically up to 20%).
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Vw Lupo, the WorldS First 3-Liter Car

2000-11-01
2000-01-C044
After the success of the 4-cylinder 1.9-liter TDI and SDI direct-injection diesel engines in the Passat, Jetta and Polo classes, a new 3-cylinder TDI has been developed for use in the "Lupo 3L,' a compact car with a fuel consumption of 3 liters per 100 km. A new injection system with unit injectors, together with a fully electronically controlled engine management system featuring drive-by-wire- technology, a turbocharger with variable turbine geometry and a fully automated mechanical gearbox and clutch, for the first time ensures the potential to meet the stringent D4 exhaust emissions level and to achieve excellent fuel economy. The wheel-torque based engine and gearbox management systems optimize engine operation in terms of efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

Overview of the European “Particulates” Project on the Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions From Road Vehicles: Results for Light-Duty Vehicles

2004-06-08
2004-01-1985
This paper presents an overview of the results on light duty vehicles collected in the “PARTICULATES” project which aimed at the characterization of exhaust particle emissions from road vehicles. A novel measurement protocol, developed to promote the production of nucleation mode particles over transient cycles, has been successfully employed in several labs to evaluate a wide range of particulate properties with a range of light duty vehicles and fuels. The measured properties included particle number, with focus separately on nucleation mode and solid particles, particle active surface and total mass. The vehicle sample consisted of 22 cars, including conventional diesels, particle filter equipped diesels, port fuel injected and direct injection spark ignition cars. Four diesel and three gasoline fuels were used, mainly differentiated with respect to their sulfur content which was ranging from 300 to below 10 mg/kg.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1606
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

Environmental Standards for Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids and Correlation of Laboratory and Field Performance

2000-09-11
2000-01-2543
Biodegradable hydraulic fluids have been introduced relatively recently and, initially, acceptable environmental performance and technical performance were neither well specified or controlled. Over the past few years, many standards and specifications have been written, especially in the area of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. Technical performance test requirements are emerging more slowly, however, and there is still some doubt over appropriate tests and limits for some performance areas. The proliferation of standards is confusing to both the product developer and fluid user. This paper summarizes the common biodegradability and ecotoxicity elements in the main environmental performance standards. It also discusses appropriate laboratory performance tests for oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and wear, and sets acceptable limits in these tests, based on correlation of lab and field performance of two synthetic ester based hydraulic fluids.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Deposit Flaking

2000-10-16
2000-01-2858
There is increasing concern that small flakes of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) can break lose and get trapped between the exhaust valve and the seat resulting in difficulties in starting, rough running and increase in hydrocarbon emissions. In this paper we describe experimental observations which might explain how this flaking of CCD occurs and the factors that might be important in the phenomenon. The experiments include thirty one engine tests as well as tests done in a laboratory rig and show that some CCD flake when they are exposed to water; indeed water is far more effective in bringing this about than gasoline or other organic solvents. The hydrophilicity of the deposit surface which determines the penetration of water and the inherent susceptibility of the relevant deposit layer to inter-act with water are both important. Consequently there are large differences between deposits produced by different fuels and additives in terms of their susceptibility to flake.
Technical Paper

Benefits of GTL Fuel in Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-06-15
2009-01-1934
Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Technical Paper

Impact of Diesel Fuel Composition on Soot Oxidation Characteristics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0286
The regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is dependent on both the amount and type of soot present on the filter. The objective of this work is to understand how the fuel can affect this ease with which soot can be oxidized. This soot was produced in a two-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine, operated with a matrix of fuels with varying aromatic and sulphur level. Their oxidation behaviour in different environments was determined by Temperature Programmed Oxidation in TGA and a six-flow reactor. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the soot morphology. Oxidation with only O2 shows oxidation temperatures strongly dependent on the fuel type. Soot oxidation in the presence of NO and a Pt-catalyst results in a lower oxidation temperature. SO2 has an inhibiting effect leading to higher soot oxidation temperature.
Technical Paper

New ways of fluid flow control in automobiles: Experience with exhaust gas aftertreatmetn control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0299
Flow control by fluidic devices - without moving parts - offers advantages of reliability and low cost. As an example of their automobile application based on authors'' long-time experience the paper describes a fluidic valve for switching exhaust gas flow in a NOx absorber into a by-pass during regeneration phase. The unique feature here is the fluidic valve being of monostable and of axisymmetric design, integrated into the absorber body. After development in aerodynamic laboratory, the final design was tested on engine test stand and finally in a car. This proved that the performance under high temperature and pulsation existing in exhaust systems is reliable and promising. Fluidic valves require, however, close matching with aerodynamic load. To optimize the exhaust system layout for the whole load-speed range and reaching minimum counter- pressure, both the components of exhaust system and control strategy have to be properly adopted.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

2016-10-17
2016-01-2246
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1002
The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Technical Paper

Trimmed Body Static Stiffness Identification Using Dynamic Measurements: Test Methodology and Correlation with CAE Results

2018-06-13
2018-01-1496
A key metric of a car body structure is the body stiffness, which shows significant correlation with different vehicle performance attributes as NVH, comfort and vehicle handling. Typical approaches to identify static stiffness characteristics are the use of a static stiffness test bench or the ‘static-from-dynamic’ approach in which free-free acquired transfer functions are used to build a modal model from which the static stiffness characteristics are extracted. Both of these approaches have limitations, the static stiffness bench with respect to clamping conditions and reproducing those in CAE, the static-from-dynamic with respect to the modal analysis (EMA) that needs to be performed. EMA is a subjective process, which can limit result robustness. In addition, performing EMA on a trimmed body is difficult due to the high modal density and the high level of damping.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components of Modern Diesel Passenger Cars

1999-03-01
1999-01-0514
In this paper the emissions of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components of a fleet of diesel passenger cars measured at Volkswagen in the eighties are compared with the results of a new investigation on modern direct-injection diesel vehicles. The potential of improved diesel fuels to reduce emissions is also examined. The emissions of regulated exhaust gas components as well as fuel consumption have been reduced significantly in the last years as a result of the systematic further development of conventional swirl chamber engines and exhaust gas after-treatment as well as the introduction of SDI/TDI engines. As was to be expected, this has also had a positive effect on the emissions of unregulated exhaust gas components. It has been possible, for example, to reduce the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on diesel particulates by more than 95%.
Technical Paper

Octane Response of a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine at Different Compression Ratios

2018-04-03
2018-01-0269
Stringent regulations on fuel economy have driven major innovative changes in the internal combustion engine design. (E.g. CAFE fuel economy standards of 54.5 mpg by 2025 in the U.S) Vehicle manufacturers have implemented engine infrastructure changes such as downsizing, direct injection, higher compression ratios and turbo-charging/super-charging to achieve higher engine efficiencies. Fuel properties therefore, have to align with these engine changes in order to fully exploit the possible benefits. Fuel octane number is a key metric that enables high fuel efficiency in an engine. Greater resistance to auto-ignition (knock) of the fuel/air mixture allows engines to be operated at a higher compression ratio for a given quantity of intake charge without severely retarding the spark timing resulting in a greater torque per mass of fuel burnt. This attribute makes a high octane fuel a favorable hydrocarbon choice for modern high efficiency engines that aim for higher fuel economy.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

2017-06-29
2017-01-9281
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
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