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Video

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-06-18
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH3 storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH3 storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH3 slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

Brief Investigation of SCR High Temperature N2O Production

2012-06-18
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 298-310 [1,2] (298-310 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO2)). As a result, any aftertreatment system that generates N2O must be well understood to be used effectively. Under low temperature conditions, N2O can be produced by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts. The chemistry is reasonably well understood with N2O formed by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate [3]. Ammonium nitrate and N2O form in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) gas mixtures that are high in nitrogen dioxide (NO2)[4]. This mechanism occurs at a relatively low temperature of about 200°C, and can be controlled by maintaining the nitric oxide (NO)/NO2 ratio above 1. However, N2O has also been observed at relatively high temperatures, in the region of 500°C.
Video

Evaluation of a NOx Transient Response Method for OBD of SCR Catalysts

2012-01-30
OBD requirements for aftertreatment system components require monitoring of the individual system components. One such component can be an NH3-SCR catalyst for NOx reduction. An OBD method that has been suggested is to generate positive or negative spikes in the inlet NH3 concentration, and monitor the outlet NOx transient response. A slow response indicates that the catalyst is maintaining its NH3 storage capacity, and therefore it is probably not degraded. A fast response indicates the catalyst has lost NH3 storage capacity, and may be degraded. The purpose of the work performed at Southwest Research Institute was to assess this approach for feasibility, effectiveness and practicality. The presentation will describe the work performed, results obtained, and implications for applying this method in test laboratory and real-world situations. Presenter Gordon J. Bartley, Southwest Research Institute
Video

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of SAE #2 Machine Tests

1999-10-25
1999-01-3617
For many years the SAE No. 2 friction machine has been used to measure the coefficient of friction obtained through the interaction of fluid, steel and clutch material. In addition, by forcing energy through the wetted clutch-steel interface and measuring the decay of the coefficient of friction over time, the durability of the materials and fluids can be determined. This paper discusses the use of a numerical computer model to duplicate SAE No. 2 data. The inputs for this model include test stand geometry and physical properties as well as output from a low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA). The LVFA uses a small disc of friction material, a small disc of steel material, and a small sample of fluid to generate a coefficient versus speed curve (m vs v). It was found that torque traces and speed traces generated by this model correlate well with actual SAE No. 2 data. THERE ARE SEVERAL REASONS for creating this model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Ignition Behaviour of the ASTM D-613 Primary Reference Fuels and Full Boiling Range Diesel Fuels in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part III

1999-10-25
1999-01-3591
This paper reports on the third part of a continued study (SAE Papers 961182, 971636) to develop the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Past research has shown that this automated laboratory/refinery apparatus can be used to accurately predict the cetane number of middle distillates and alternative fuels using small sample volumes (< 50 mL). The paper reports on the main objective of a study performed by Advanced Engine Technology Ltd. (AET), in co-operation with its research partners. The primary research objective of this work is to further the understanding of fuel preparation (fuel air mixing) and start of combustion processes in the IQT™. Key to this understanding is the manner in which single molecule compounds and full boiling-range diesel fuels behave during these processes. Insights are provided into the manner in which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-613 primary reference fuels (PRFs) undergo fuel preparation and start of combustion in the IQT™.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3574
The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Advanced Emission Control Technologies for Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3564
To evaluate the performance of a variety of commercially available exhaust emission control technologies, the Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (MECA) sponsored a test program at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The test engine was a current design heavy-duty diesel engine operated on standard No. 2 diesel (368 ppm) and lower sulfur (54 ppm) diesel fuel. Technologies evaluated included: diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs) in combination with filters and oxidation catalysts, and combinations of the above technologies. The program was structured to demonstrate that a variety of exhaust emission control technologies, including exhaust gas recirculation, could be used to substantially reduce emissions from a modern MY 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Potential Analytical Methods for Stability Testing of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends

1999-10-25
1999-01-3520
A literature evaluation of potential oxidative and thermal stability test methods for biodiesel and biodiesel blends with petrodiesel, as well as the known effects of stability related issues on performance in the field, has been completed. The advantages and disadvantages of the selected potential test methods were compiled to form a basis for further consideration and rating of the test methods. The literature search and rankings were peer reviewed by experts in the oleochemical, petroleum diesel, and diesel engine manufacturing fields. Based on the peer-reviewed rankings, limited bench scale testing was performed on selected test methods and various modifications to determine their applicability to biodiesel and biodiesel blends. For various reasons, none of the methods (as written) appeared to be reliable indicators of performance with biodiesel or its blends.
Technical Paper

Late Intake Valve Closing with Throttle Control at Light Loads for a Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3485
Heavy-duty natural gas engines available today are typically derived from diesel engines. The biggest discrepancy in thermal efficiency between a natural gas engine and its diesel counterpart comes at low loads. This is particularly true for a lean-burn throttle-controlled refuse hauler. Field data shows that a refuse hauler operates at low speeds for the majority of the time, averaging between 3 to 7 miles per hour. As a result, many developers focus primarily on the improvement of thermal efficiency at light loads and low speeds. One way to improve efficiency at light loads is through the use of a late intake valve closing (IVC) technique. With the increase in electronic and hydraulic control technologies, the potential benefits of late IVC with unthrottled control are realizable in production engines.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Steady-State Oil Consumption Measurement on Commercial SI-Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3461
The oil consumption has been measured in real-time for steady-state operating conditions for an approximately 2 L SI-engine. These oil consumption measurements have been obtained for the engine stack (total) as well as for the individual engine cylinders with the current generation of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed SO2 analyzers. The 10 steady-state data presented in this paper is only a small fraction of the 234 steady-state data taken as part of this project. This paper is important since few complete data sets have been published in this area of research and since it illustrates the technical superiority of this analyzing tool for engine development purposes.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3302
The purpose of this project was to modify existing small off-road engines to meet ARB's originally proposed 1999 emissions standards. A particular point was to show that compliance could be attained without the need to redesign the base engines. Four high-sales volume, ARB-certified 1997 model engines were selected from the following categories: 1) handheld two-stroke engine, 2) handheld four-stroke engine, 3) non-handheld side-valve engine, and 4) a non-handheld overhead-valve engine. Engines were selected, procured, and baseline emission tested using applicable ARB test procedures. Appropriate emission control strategies were then selected and applied to the four engines. Emission reduction strategies used included air/fuel ratio optimization, and catalytic aftertreatment. Following the development of the four emission-controlled engines, final, certification-quality emissions tests were performed. All four engines met ARB's original 1999 Tier 2 emission standards after development.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

2000-03-06
2000-01-0515
Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
Technical Paper

Container Deformation Procedure for Ceramic Monolith Catalytic Converters

2000-03-06
2000-01-0217
A typical automotive catalytic converter is constructed with a ceramic substrate and a steel shell. Due to a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion, the steel shell will expand away from the ceramic substrate at high temperatures. The gap between the substrate and shell is usually filled with a fiber composite material referred to as “mat.” Mat materials are compressed during assembly and must maintain an adequate pressure around the substrate under extreme temperature conditions. The container deformation measurement procedure is used to determine catalytic converter shell expansion during and after a period of hot catalytic converter operation. This procedure is useful in determining the potential physical durability of a catalytic converter system, and involves measuring converter shell expansion as a function of inlet temperature. A post-test dimensional measurement is used to determine permanent container deformation.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Thermal Environment Measurement Under Dynamometer Simulated Roadloads

2000-03-06
2000-01-0216
An increasing number of passenger vehicle exhaust systems incorporate catalytic converters that are “close-coupled” to the exhaust manifold to further reduce the quantity of cold-start emissions and increase overall catalyst conversion efficiencies. In general, close-coupled catalytic converters are not necessarily subjected to higher inlet exhaust temperatures than conventional underbody catalytic converters. To establish a foundation of on-vehicle temperature data, several passenger vehicles with close-coupled catalytic converters were studied while operating on a chassis dynamometer. Converter temperatures were measured over a variety of vehicle test conditions, including accelerations and extended steady-state speeds for several throttle positions, at both zero- and four-percent simulated road grades.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Mat Material Durability Measurement Under Controlled Thermal and Vibration Environments

2000-03-06
2000-01-0221
To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
Technical Paper

Effects of Catalyst Formulation on Vehicle Emissions With Respect to Gasoline Fuel Sulfur Level

1999-10-25
1999-01-3675
Proposed emissions standards will require that emissions control systems function at extremely high efficiency. Recently, studies have shown that elevated gasoline fuel sulfur levels (GFSL) can impair catalytic converter efficiency. In this study, a variety of tri-metal catalysts were evaluated to determine if formulation changes could reduce emissions sensitivity to GFSL. Catalysts with elemental composition similar to an OEM, but with double the precious metal (PM) loading, were evaluated using 38 and 620 ppm GFSL. Doubling the PM loading significantly reduced catalyst sensitivity to sulfur. Doubling the rhodium loading, at the expense of the platinum loading, significantly improved NOx emission sulfur sensitivity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Turbocharger Clearance Control Coating on the Performance and Emissions of a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3665
Extensive efforts are being made to improve emissions from 2-stroke diesel engines. These improvements are primarily directed towards older model year engines with relatively high emissions compared with modern diesel engines. While most researchers focus their attention on engine design changes that promise substantial emission improvements, this work dealt with the turbocharger characteristics, especially as related to using internal coatings on both the compressor and turbine housings. Two identical turbochargers were tested on a Detroit Diesel 6V-92TA engine. One of the two turbochargers was left in its production configuration while the other was coated with a clearance control coating on the inside of the compressor and turbine housings. This coating led to a significant reduction in the tip clearance of both the compressor and turbine wheels.
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