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Video

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-06-18
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH3 storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH3 storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH3 slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

Brief Investigation of SCR High Temperature N2O Production

2012-06-18
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 298-310 [1,2] (298-310 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO2)). As a result, any aftertreatment system that generates N2O must be well understood to be used effectively. Under low temperature conditions, N2O can be produced by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts. The chemistry is reasonably well understood with N2O formed by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate [3]. Ammonium nitrate and N2O form in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) gas mixtures that are high in nitrogen dioxide (NO2)[4]. This mechanism occurs at a relatively low temperature of about 200°C, and can be controlled by maintaining the nitric oxide (NO)/NO2 ratio above 1. However, N2O has also been observed at relatively high temperatures, in the region of 500°C.
Video

Evaluation of a NOx Transient Response Method for OBD of SCR Catalysts

2012-01-30
OBD requirements for aftertreatment system components require monitoring of the individual system components. One such component can be an NH3-SCR catalyst for NOx reduction. An OBD method that has been suggested is to generate positive or negative spikes in the inlet NH3 concentration, and monitor the outlet NOx transient response. A slow response indicates that the catalyst is maintaining its NH3 storage capacity, and therefore it is probably not degraded. A fast response indicates the catalyst has lost NH3 storage capacity, and may be degraded. The purpose of the work performed at Southwest Research Institute was to assess this approach for feasibility, effectiveness and practicality. The presentation will describe the work performed, results obtained, and implications for applying this method in test laboratory and real-world situations. Presenter Gordon J. Bartley, Southwest Research Institute
Video

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of High-Temperature Diesel Engine Liquid Lubricants

1995-10-01
952544
High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as a tool for HTL evaluation. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247°C and an oil sump temperature of 166°C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Hybrid Powertrain for Heavy Duty Trucks

1995-11-01
952585
Heavy duty trucks account for about 50 percent of the NOx burden in urban areas and consume about 20 percent of the national transportation fuel in the United States. There is a continuing need to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. Much of the focus of current work is on engine development as a stand-alone subsystem. While this has yielded impressive gains so far, further improvement in emissions or engine efficiency is unlikely in a cost effective manner. Consequently, an integrated approach looking at the whole powertrain is required. A computer model of the heavy duty truck system was built and evaluated. The model includes both conventional and hybrid powertrains. It uses a series of interacting sub-models for the vehicle, transmission, engine, exhaust aftertreatment and braking energy recovery/storage devices. A specified driving cycle is used to calculate the power requirements at the wheels and energy flow and inefficiencies throughout the drivetrain.
Technical Paper

Design of an Emergency Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1995-11-01
952592
An Emergency Tire Inflation System (ETIS) designed for use on commercial trucks was evaluated and tested. The ETIS is provided in kit form and designed to be installed by a truck operator to provide emergency air to inflate a low or punctured tire on tractor drive axles. The ETIS will continue to supply air to the tire until the system pressure falls below a safe air pressure level. The system is designed to allow the rig to be driven 500 miles to a tire repair station or to a safe location where tire repair service is available. The installation kit (Figure 1), which can fit under a truck seat, includes all the necessary equipment to install the system on the most common drive axles. The ETIS supplies air to the under-inflated tire through a previously qualified1 Rotary Union design. The Rotary Union is attached to the axle flange of the drive axle by a threaded adapter and two adjustable links that allow the Rotary Union to be placed at the center of rotation of the axle.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1995-11-01
952591
An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers underwent complete testing and evaluation in 1993/1994.1 Testing and evaluation included a field test of a prototype system and a controlled laboratory evaluation of the Rotary Union which is the only component subject to wear. The testing of the prototype system indicated that design improvements were necessary before the system could be installed in fleet operations. The design improvements were completed and field installation of production ATIS began. The design improvements were intended to improve overall system durability, decrease installation time, to have less effect on the axle structure than the original design, implement the use of SAE or DOT Approved pressure components and increase overall dependability of the system. ATIS systems have now been developed and tested for most domestic trailer axle configurations.
Technical Paper

Use of Butane as an Alternative Fuel-Emissions from a Conversion Vehicle Using Various Blends

1995-10-01
952496
This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the regulated emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for eight butane and propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty vehicle, emission certified to be a California transitional low emission vehicle (TLEV) and converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate EPA FTP emission tests were conducted with each fuel. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel. Results showed that all eight fuels could allow the converted vehicle to pass California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) NMOG and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) standards. Six of the eight fuels could allow the vehicle to pass ULEV carbon monoxide (CO) standards. BUTANE has been an important gasoline blending component for many years.
Technical Paper

Reactivity and Exhaust Emissions from an EHC-Equipped LPG Conversion Vehicle Operating on Butane/Propane Fuel Blends

1996-10-01
961991
This paper describes experiments conducted to determine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) exhaust emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for several butane/propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty EHC-equipped gasoline vehicle converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate emission tests were conducted on the light-duty vehicle at each test condition using appropriate EPA FTP test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lean-NOx Catalyst Containing Metal-Ligand Complex Impregnated Molecular Sieves

1996-10-01
962050
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an operative catalyst for the reduction of NOx in lean exhaust. A catalyst that incorporates iron (II)-complex impregnated modified mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) has been synthesized and further treated with [pd(NH3)4]Cl2 [1]. Experimental results suggest a hydrocarbon-independent reduction of NOx takes place on the iron center, and oxidation of CO is assisted by the palladium ion. The catalytic activity toward HC CO, and NOx removal was studied with simulated and real engine exhaust in the laboratory and on an engine, respectively. Engine test results demonstrate a reduction of NOx of up to 10 percent at catalyst inlet temperatures in the range of 260°C to 280°C. In this paper, possible NOx reduction pathways are also discussed.
Technical Paper

A PC-Based Model for Predicting NOx Reductions in Diesel Engines

1996-10-01
962060
A menu-driven, PC-based model, ALAMO_ENGINE, has been developed to predict the nitrogen oxides (NOx) reductions in direct-injected, diesel engines due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), emulsified fuels, manifold or in-cylinder water injection, fuel injection timing changes, humidity effects, and intake air temperature changes. The approach was to use a diesel engine cycle simulation with detailed gas composition calculations for the intake and exhaust gases (including EGR, water concentration, fuel-type effects, etc.), coupled with a code to calculate stoichiometric, adiabatic flame temperatures and expressions that correlate measured NOx emissions with the flame temperature. Execution times are less than 10 seconds on a 486-66 MHz PC.
Technical Paper

EGR System Integration on a Pump Line-Nozzle Engine

1998-02-23
980181
The minimum oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were investigated on a heavy-duty diesel engine featuring a pump-line-nozzle fuel injection system. Due to the technical merits of electronic fuel injection systems, most accounts of EGR system development for heavy-duty diesel engines have focused on these types of engines and not engines with mechanical fuel systems. This work details use of a high-pressure-loop EGR configuration and a novel, computer-controlled, EGR valve that allowed for optimizing the EGR rate as a function of speed and load on a 6L, turbo-charged/intercooled engine. Cycle NOx levels were reduced nearly 50 percent to 2.3 g/hp-hr using conventional diesel fuel and application of only EGR, but particulates increased nearly three-fold even with the standard oxidation catalyst employed.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties on Emissions from a 2.5gm NOx Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982491
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
Technical Paper

Lower Explosion Limits and Compositions of Middle Distillate Fuel Vapors

1998-10-19
982485
Lower explosion limits (LEL) and the chemical compositions of JP-8, Jet A and JP-5 fuel vapors were determined in a sealed combustion vessel equipped with a spark igniter, a gas-sampling probe, and sensors to measure pressure rise and fuel temperature. Ignition was detected by pressure rise in the vessel. Pressure rises up to 60 psig were observed near the flash points of the test fuels. The fuel vapors in the vessel ignited from as much as 11°F below flash-point measurements. Detailed hydrocarbon speciation of the fuel vapors was performed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Over 300 hydrocarbons were detected in the vapors phase. The average molecular weight, hydrogen to carbon ratio, and LEL of the fuel vapors were determined from the concentration measurements. The jet fuel vapors had molecular weights ranging from 114 to 132, hydrogen to carbon ratios of approximately 1.93, and LELs comparable to pure hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight.
Technical Paper

The Port Fuel Injector Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

1998-10-19
982713
The Port Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposit Test is a performance-based test procedure developed by the Coordinating Research Council and adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies for fuel qualification in the United States. To date, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has performed over 375 PFI tests between 1991 and 1998 for various clients. This paper details the analyses of these tests. Of the 375 tests, 199 were performed as keep-clean tests and 176 were performed as clean-up tests. The following areas of interest are discussed in this paper: Keep-clean versus clean-up test procedures Linearity of deposit formation Injector position effects as related to fouling Dirtyup / cleanup phenomena Seasonal effects This paper draws the conclusion that it is easier to keep new injectors from forming deposits than it is to clean up previously formed deposits. It was found that injector deposit formation is generally non-linear.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water on Distillate Fuel Lubricity

1998-10-19
982568
The continuing trend toward “cleaner” distillate fuels has prompted concerns about the lubricity characteristics of current and future distillates. Since many U.S. Navy ships utilize seawater-compensated fuel tanks to maintain the ship's trim, the Navy performed a detailed study in order to better understand the relationship between fuel water content and lubricity characteristics. The lubricity test methods, modified for this study, were ASTM D 6078 (SLBOCLE), D 6079 (HFRR), and D 5001 (BOCLE). The results indicated that, with few exceptions, there was generally no evidence of a correlation between the water content of the fuels and the corresponding lubricity measurements as determined by the laboratory tests.
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