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Technical Paper

Late Intake Valve Closing with Throttle Control at Light Loads for a Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine

Heavy-duty natural gas engines available today are typically derived from diesel engines. The biggest discrepancy in thermal efficiency between a natural gas engine and its diesel counterpart comes at low loads. This is particularly true for a lean-burn throttle-controlled refuse hauler. Field data shows that a refuse hauler operates at low speeds for the majority of the time, averaging between 3 to 7 miles per hour. As a result, many developers focus primarily on the improvement of thermal efficiency at light loads and low speeds. One way to improve efficiency at light loads is through the use of a late intake valve closing (IVC) technique. With the increase in electronic and hydraulic control technologies, the potential benefits of late IVC with unthrottled control are realizable in production engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Reduced Boost Air Temperature on Knock Limited Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP)

The effect of low temperature intake air on the knock limited brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) in a spark ignited natural gas engine is described in this paper. This work was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using the vaporization of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to reduce the intake air temperature of engines operating on LNG fuel. The effect on steady-state emissions and transient response are also reported. Three different intake air temperatures were tested and evaluated as to their impact upon engine performance and gaseous emissions output. The results of these tests are as follows. The reduced intake air temperature allowed for a 30.7% (501 kPa) increase in the knock-limited BMEP (comparing the 10°C (50°F) intake air results with the 54.4°C (130°F) results). Exhaust emissions were recorded at constant BMEP for varying intake air temperatures.