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Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

1974-02-01
740627
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Emissions Control of Gasoline Engines for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1975-02-01
750903
This paper summarizes an investigation of reductions in exhaust emission levels attainable using various techniques appropriate to gasoline engines used in vehicles over 14,000 lbs GVW. Of the eight gasoline engines investigated, two were evaluated parametrically resulting in an oxidation and reduction catalyst “best combination” configuration. Four of the engines were evaluated in an EGR plus oxidation catalyst configuration, and two involved only baseline tests. Test procedures used in evaluating the six “best combination” configurations include: three engine emission test procedures using an engine dynamometer, a determination of vehicle driveability, and two vehicle emission test procedures using a chassis dynamometer. Dramatic reductions in emissions were attained with the catalyst “best combination” configurations. Engine durability, however, was not investigated.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

1975-02-01
750901
This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
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