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Technical Paper

Validation Method for Diesel Particulate Filter Durability

2007-10-29
2007-01-4086
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a critical aftertreatment device for control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine. DPF survivability is challenged by several key factors such as: excessive thermal stress due to DPF runaway regenerations (or uncontrolled regeneration) may cause DPF substrate and washcoat failure. Catalyst poisoning elements from the diesel fuel and engine oil may cause performance degradation of the catalyzed DPF. Harsh vibration from the powertrain, as well as from the road surface, may lead to mechanical failure of the substrate and/or the matting material. Evaluations of these important validation parameters were performed.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Investigation of a High-Efficiency NOx Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-3983
A high-efficiency NOx aftertreatment system has been proposed for use in Diesel engines. This system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) in series with a Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst [6], [7], [8], and is hereinafter referred to as the LNT-SCR system. The combined LNT-SCR system can potentially overcome many of the drawbacks of LNT-only and SCR-only operation and achieve very high NOx conversion efficiency without external addition of ammonia (or urea). A laboratory test procedure was developed to validate the LNT-SCR system concept, and a series of tests was conducted to test the NOx conversion of this system under various conditions. A Synthetic Gas Reactor (SGR) system was modified to accommodate LNT and SCR catalyst cores and synthetic gas mixtures were used to simulate rich-lean regeneration cycles from a diesel engine. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) system was used to measure gas compositions within the LNT-SCR system.
Technical Paper

Methodologies to Control DPF Uncontrolled Regenerations

2006-04-03
2006-01-1090
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have been shown to effectively reduce particulate emissions from diesel engines. However, uncontrolled DPF regeneration can easily damage the DPF. In this paper, three different types of uncontrolled DPF regeneration are defined. They are: Type A: Uncontrolled high initial exotherm at the start of DPF regeneration, Type B: “Runaway” or uncontrolled regeneration, which takes place when the engine goes to idle during normal DPF regeneration, and Type C: Uneven soot distribution causing excess thermal stress during normal DPF regeneration. In this paper, different control strategies are developed for each of the three types of uncontrolled DPF regenerations. These control strategies include SOF control, exhaust flow pattern improvement, as well as EGR control through intake throttling and A/F ratio control.
Technical Paper

Deposit Reduction in SCR Aftertreatment Systems by Addition of Ti-Based Coordination Complex to UWS

2019-04-02
2019-01-0313
Formation of urea-derived deposits in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems continues to be problematic at temperatures at and below 215 °C. Several consequences of deposit formation include: NOx and NH3 slip, exhaust flow maldistribution, increased engine backpressure, and corrosion of aftertreatment components. Numerous methods have been developed to reduce deposit formation, but to date, there has been no solution for continuous low-temperature dosing of Urea-Water Solution (UWS). This manuscript presents a novel methodology for reducing low-temperature deposit formation in SCR aftertreatment systems. The methodology described herein involves incorporation and dissolution of an HNCO hydrolysis catalyst directly into the UWS. HNCO is a transient species formed by the thermolysis of urea upon injection of UWS into the aftertreatment system.
Journal Article

EGR System Fouling Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0066
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective in reducing engine-out NOx emissions; however, the EGR system is subject to fouling and corrosion. Fouling is mainly due to particulate buildup on the EGR component (e.g., EGR valve and cooler) surfaces. Corrosion is primarily related to oxides of sulfur and nitrogen in the gas stream, especially problematic when condensation occurs [1]. Because cooled EGR is most effective in controlling NOx emissions, EGR cooler design and operation are important considerations in engine design in order to meet durability requirements. An approach has been developed to greatly reduce EGR system fouling. Four EGR coolers were tested simultaneously with various PM control devices installed upstream of the cooler. System configuration and on-engine test results are presented herein.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Derived Deposits Composition in SCR Systems and Their Potential Effect on Overall PM Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0989
Ideally, complete thermal decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea thermal decomposition reaction includes the formation of isocyanic acid as an intermediate product. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide [1,2,3,4]. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions, can create oligomers such as melam, melem, and melon [5, 6] that are difficult to remove from exhaust systems. Deposits can affect the efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of PM, HC, CO and NOx Emissions from a GDI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0365
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are becoming a concern and will be limited by future emissions regulations, such as the upcoming Euro 6 legislation. Therefore, PM control from a GDI engine will be required in addition to effective reduction of HC, CO and NOx emissions. Three different integrated aftertreatment systems were developed to simultaneously reduce PM, HC, CO and NOx emissions from a preproduction Ford 3.5L EcoBoost GTDI engine, with PM reduction as the major focus. PM reduction efficiencies were calculated based on the measurements of PM mass and solid particle number. Test results show that tradeoffs exist in the design of aftertreatment systems to significantly reduce PM emissions from a GDI engine.
Technical Paper

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1077
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO₂ formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH₃ storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH₃ storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH₃ slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

Updating China Heavy-Duty On-Road Diesel Emission Regulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0367
With the rapid expansion of the automotive market in China, air quality in the major cities has become a severe concern. Great efforts have been made in introducing new emission regulations; however, fuel and lubricant qualities, emissions aftertreatment system durability and in-use compliance to the emissions regulations still require significant improvement. China follows the European Union (EU) emission regulations in general, but different levels of standards exist. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current and near-future heavy-duty diesel emission regulations, as well as fuel and lubricant specifications.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Accelerated Ash Loading Methods for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1703
Recent legislation enacted for the European Union (EU) and the United States calls for a substantial reduction in particulate mass (and number in the EU) emissions from gasoline spark-ignited vehicles. The most prominent technology being evaluated to reduce particulate emissions from a gasoline vehicle is a wall flow filter known as a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Similar in nature to a diesel particulate filter (DPF), the GPF will trap and store particulate emissions from the engine, and oxidize said particulate with frequent regeneration events. The GPF will also collect ash particles in the wall flow substrate, which are metallic components that cannot be oxidized into gaseous components. Due to high temperature operation and frequent regeneration of the GPF, the impact of ash on the GPF has the potential to be substantially different from the impact of ash on the DPF.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Fuel Consumption on Engine Backpressure Generated by a DPF

2010-04-12
2010-01-0535
In recent years, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems have become the state-of-the-art technology to realize low particulate emission for light, medium or heavy-duty diesel vehicles. In addition to good filtration efficiency and thermo-mechanical robustness, the engine backpressure resulted from the DPF installation is an important parameter which directly impacts the fuel economy of the engine. The goal of this experimental test series was to determine the dependence of fuel consumption on engine backpressure resulted from a DPF installed on a heavy-duty application. The testing was executed on a MY2003 Volvo D12 heavy-duty diesel engine in an engine test cell at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). Empty DPF cans were used with an exhaust valve to mimic the post turbo pressure levels for two different types of DPF materials at nine selected engine operating points of the European Stationary Cycle (ESC).
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Device to Improve Urea Evaporation, Mixing and Distribution to Enhance SCR Performance

2010-04-12
2010-01-1185
A novel urea evaporation and mixing device has been developed to improve the overall performance of a urea-SCR system. The device was tested with a MY2007 Cummins ISB 6.7L diesel engine equipped with an SCR aftertreatment system. Test results show that the device effectively improved the overall NO conversion efficiency of the SCR catalyst over both steady-state and transient engine operating conditions, while NH₃ slip from the catalyst decreased.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Derived Deposits Composition in SCR Systems

2016-10-17
2016-01-2327
Ideally, complete decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea decomposition reaction is a two-step process that includes the formation of ammonia and isocyanic acid as intermediate products via thermolysis. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid (CYN), biuret (BIU), melamine (MEL), ammeline (AML), ammelide (AMD), and dicyandimide (DICY). These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions can create oligomers that are difficult to remove from exhaust pipes. Deposits can affect efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow and negatively impact ammonia distribution on the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Development of a Burner-Based Test System to Produce Controllable Particulate Emissions for Evaluation of Gasoline Particulate Filters

2020-04-14
2020-01-0389
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely adopted by manufacturers in the light-duty market due to their fuel economy benefits. However, several studies have shown that GDI engines generate higher levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port fuel injected (PFI) engines and diesel engines equipped with optimally functioning diesel particulate filters (DPF). With stringent particle number (PN) regulations being implemented in both, the European Union and China, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are expected to be widely utilized to control particulate emissions. Currently, evaluating GPF technologies on a vehicle can be challenging due to a limited number of commercially available vehicles that are calibrated for a GPF in the United States as well as the costs associated with vehicle procurement and evaluations utilizing a chassis dynamometer facility.
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