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Technical Paper

Toward the Environmentally-Friendly Small Engine: Fuel, Lubricant, and Emission Measurement Issues

Small engines which are friendly toward the environment are needed all over the world, whether the need is expressed in terms of energy efficiency, useful engine life, health benefits for the user, or emission regulations enacted to protect a population or an ecologically-sensitive area. Progress toward the widespread application of lower-impact small engines is being made through engine design, matching of engine to equipment and task, aftertreatment technology, alternative and reformulated fuels, and improved lubricants. This paper describes three research and development projects, focused on the interrelationships of fuels, lubricants, and emissions in Otto-cycle engines, which were conducted by Southwest Research Institute. All the work reported was funded internally as part of a commitment to advance the state of small engine technology and thus enhance human utility.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Effects of Lubricants in Military Vehicles

The US Army is currently seeking to reduce fuel consumption by utilizing fuel efficient lubricants in its ground vehicle fleet. An additional desire is for a lubricant which would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel efficient, multifunctional Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL) with extended drain capabilities. To quantify the fuel efficiency impact of a SCPL type fluid in the engine and transmission, current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil was used in place of MIL-PRF-2104G 15W-40 oil and SAE J1321 Fuel Consumption In-Service testing was conducted. Additionally, synthetic SAE 75W-140 gear oil was evaluated in the axles of the vehicles in place of an SAE J2360 80W-90 oil. The test vehicles used for the study were three M1083A1 5-Ton Cargo vehicles from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV).
Technical Paper

Deploying Connected VehicleSM using the FDOT SunGuide® Software: Technology Leadership Brief

The State of Florida initiated the SunGuide® Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) software development program in October 2003; that software is deployed in over 15 Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) throughout the major cities in Florida. One of SunGuide's biggest strengths is a software architecture that allows for short development times for new functionality. This paper describes the system design, implementation, and lessons learned from the development of the SunGuide Connected Vehicle Subsystem (CVS). The SunGuide CVS receives real-time speed, location, and heading data from instrumented vehicles and uses that data in a manner similar to its use of traffic detector data to provide information to the TMC. In addition to the vehicle providing data to the TMC, the TMC may create and publish Traveler Advisory Messages to the vehicle as part of the SunGuide Event Management response plans.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology in Studying Lubricant Chemistry to Enhance Bearing and Ring Wear Control in an Operating Engine

Radioactive tracer technology (RAT) is an important tool in measuring component wear in an operating engine on a real-time basis. This paper will discuss the use of RAT to study and evaluate boundary lubricant and surfactant chemistries aimed at providing benefits in wear control. In particular, RAT was employed to study ring and bearing wear as a function of engine operating condition (speed, load, and temperature) and lubricant characteristics. Prior to testing, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings were subjected to bulk thermal neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that were separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces. The irradiated parts were installed in the test engine, after which testing to a specific test matrix was accomplished.
Technical Paper

Manual Transmission Efficiency Trends and Characteristics

This paper presents a discussion on manual transmission torque losses and focuses specifically on the relationship between torque loss, input speed and torque. It also includes a discussion on other factors affecting torque loss, such as inclination angle and lube oil temperature. Manual transmissions used in compact light truck applications have torque losses that are a function of input speed and torque. Efficiency studies done on manual transmissions in the engine-driving mode indicate that torque losses, in other than direct-drive gears, are considerably more dependent on input torque than input speed. It was also observed that efficiency was significantly affected by the inclination angle and lube oil temperature.
Technical Paper

Qualification of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers, requires modification of the axles to direct air to the tires. The ATIS requires a drilled hole through the axle tube for the installation of a pneumatic fitting. The trucking industry expressed concern about the modification and its impact upon the axle structure, and the general durability of the system over a long period. A three-phase test program was developed and conducted to satisfy the concerns of the industry.
Technical Paper

Noise Benchmarking of the Detroit Diesel DD15 Engine

Several new or significantly upgraded heavy duty truck engines are being introduced in the North American market. One important aspect of these new or revised engines is their noise characteristics. This paper describes the noise related characteristics of the new DD15 engine, and compares them to other competitive heavy truck engines. DD15 engine features relevant to noise include a rear gear train, isolated oil pan and valve cover, and an amplified high pressure common rail fuel system. The transition between non-amplified and amplified common rail operation is shown to have a significant noise impact, not unlike the transition between pilot injection and single shot injection in some other engines.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
Journal Article

The Role of EGR in PM Emissions from Gasoline Engines

A dilute spark-ignited engine concept has been developed as a potential low cost competitor to diesel engines by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a goal of diesel-like efficiency and torque for light- and medium-duty applications and low-cost aftertreatment. The targeted aftertreatment method is a traditional three-way catalyst, which offers both an efficiency and cost advantage over typical diesel aftertreatment systems. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) have been realized using advanced ignition systems and improved combustion, with significant improvements in emissions, efficiency, and torque resulting from using high levels of EGR. The primary motivation for this work was to understand the impact high levels of EGR would have on particulate matter (PM) formation in a port fuel injected (PFI) engine. While there are no proposed regulations for PFI engine PM levels, the potential exists for future regulations, both on a size and mass basis.
Technical Paper

Maneuverability of Trailer Trains

This paper is concerned with an adjustable scale model capable of tracing maneuverability patterns of trailer trains. The transient kinematic paths of a multiple unit carrier of train configuration consisting of ten cargo units provided with conventional two wheel steering, conventional four wheel steering, and modified four wheel steering with a steering ratio and delayed steering action are investigated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Hydrocarbon Measurement - A Flame-Ionization Method

The design and development of an instrument for the measurement of total hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust are described, and its ability to measure steady-state and transient hydrocarbon emissions is indicated. The two-section system comprises a sampling train and flame-ionization detector and a chromatograph electrometer, recorder and backpressure regulator. A mixture of 40% H2 and 60% He was found to be the best fuel for low O2 response with the system. The method has been used for more than a year in evaluating hydrocarbon emissions from a wide variety of diesel engines under a number of typical operating conditions. The greatest advantage of the high-temperature system is its potential for expressing the total hydrocarbon content in diesel exhaust.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Reformate Production in a D-EGR Engine

Dedicated EGR has shown promise for achieving high efficiency with low emissions [1]. For the present study, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine which was modified to a D-EGR configuration was used to investigate the impact of valve phasing and different injection strategies on the reformate production in the dedicated cylinder. Various levels of positive valve overlap were used in conjunction with different approaches for dedicated cylinder over fueling using PFI and DI fuel systems. Three speed-load combinations were studied, 2000 rpm 4 bar IMEPg, 2000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg, and 4000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg. The primary investigation was conducted to map out the dedicated cylinders' performance at the operating limits of intake and exhaust cam phasing. In this case, the limits were defined as conditions that yielded either no reformate benefit or led to instability in the dedicated cylinder.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cold Start Technologies on a 3L Diesel Engine

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Valvetrain Wear Test - The Sequence IVB Test

The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
Technical Paper

Technical Approach to Increasing Fuel Economy Test Precision with Light Duty Vehicles on a Chassis Dynamometer

In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP- EGR) combined with higher compression ratio, is a technology package that has been a focus of research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Research shows that the addition of LP-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LP-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LP-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. This paper presents the results of the baseline testing on an engine run with a prototype controller and initially tuned to mimic an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 anti-knock index).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.