Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

Evaluation of a NOx Transient Response Method for OBD of SCR Catalysts

2012-01-30
OBD requirements for aftertreatment system components require monitoring of the individual system components. One such component can be an NH3-SCR catalyst for NOx reduction. An OBD method that has been suggested is to generate positive or negative spikes in the inlet NH3 concentration, and monitor the outlet NOx transient response. A slow response indicates that the catalyst is maintaining its NH3 storage capacity, and therefore it is probably not degraded. A fast response indicates the catalyst has lost NH3 storage capacity, and may be degraded. The purpose of the work performed at Southwest Research Institute was to assess this approach for feasibility, effectiveness and practicality. The presentation will describe the work performed, results obtained, and implications for applying this method in test laboratory and real-world situations. Presenter Gordon J. Bartley, Southwest Research Institute
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Instantaneous Distribution of Momentum in Diesel Injection Nozzle Fuel Jets

1996-10-01
962004
Because of its dominant role in diesel engine performance and emissions, the fuel injection process has become an area of very active research and development. It is now clear that location, shape, rate of development, and mass flow distribution within each fuel jet are all important in controlling fuel air mixing, wall interactions, combustion rate, and the resulting levels of emissions. The objective of this project was to develop an instrument for measurement of the instantaneous fuel mass and momentum distribution in the jets issuing from diesel injection nozzles. The goal was to develop an instrument concept that can be used in the laboratory for fundamental measurements, as well as a quality control system for use in manufacture of the injection nozzles. The concept of the instrument is based on the measurement of the instantaneous momentum of the fuel jet as it impacts on a surface equipped with pressure sensitive elements.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Developing an Energy, Emissions, and Fuel Economy Test Procedure for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Transit Vehicles

1995-11-01
952610
Over twenty prototype hybrid buses and other commercial vehicles are currently being completed and deployed. These vehicles are primarily “series” hybrid vehicles which use electric motors for primary traction while internal combustion engines, or high-speed turbine engines connected to generators, supply some portion of the electric propulsion and battery recharge energy. Hybrid-electric vehicles have an electric energy storage system on board that influences the operation of the heat engine. The storage system design and level affect the vehicle emissions, electricity consumption, and fuel economy. Existing heavy-duty emissions test procedures require that the engine be tested over a transient cycle before it can be used in vehicles (over 26,000 lbs GVW). This paper describes current test procedures for assessing engine and vehicle emissions, and proposes techniques for evaluating engines used with hybrid-electric vehicle propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT)

1996-05-01
961182
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.) as an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) for laboratories and refineries. The IQT software/hardware system permits rapid and precise determination of ignition quality for middle distillate fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. Operating and test conditions were examined in the context of providing a high correlation with cetane number (CN), as determined by the ASTM D-613 method. Preliminary investigation indicates that the IQT results are highly repeatable (± 0.30 CN), providing a high sensitivity to CN variation over the 33 to 58 CN range.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Structure and Spray/Wall Interactions in a Constant Volume Pressure Vessel

1994-10-01
941918
High-speed movie films, and laser-diffraction drop sizing were used to evaluate the structure, penetration rate, cone angle, and drop size distribution of diesel sprays in a constant volume pressure vessel. As further means of evaluating the data, comparisons are made between the film measurements, and calculations from a dense gas jet model. In addition to the high-speed film data that describes the overall structure of the spray as a function of time, a laser diffraction instrument was used to measure drop size distribution through a cross-section of the spray. In terms of the growth of the total spray volume (a rough measure of the amount of air entrained in the spray), spray impingement causes an initial delay, but generally the same overall growth rate as an equivalent unimpeded spray. Agreement between measurements and calculations is excellent for a diesel spray with a 0.15 mm D orifice and relatively high injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects and Compensation in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

1997-05-01
971706
The effect of humidity on the lean misfire limit and emissions from a lean burn, natural gas engine is described in this paper, along with a description of a practical humidity compensation method for incorporation into an electronic control system. Experiments to determine the effects of humidity on the lean limit and emissions are described. Humidity increases were shown to decrease the rate of combustion, reduce NOx emissions, and increase the levels of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Data and calculations are also presented which demonstrate that increases in humidity will cause enleanment in a typical closed loop control system utilizing a universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. A prototype system for humidity sensing and subsequent compensation based on these findings was implemented, and the system was found, through additional testing, to compensate for humidity very effectively.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Hybrid Powertrain for Heavy Duty Trucks

1995-11-01
952585
Heavy duty trucks account for about 50 percent of the NOx burden in urban areas and consume about 20 percent of the national transportation fuel in the United States. There is a continuing need to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. Much of the focus of current work is on engine development as a stand-alone subsystem. While this has yielded impressive gains so far, further improvement in emissions or engine efficiency is unlikely in a cost effective manner. Consequently, an integrated approach looking at the whole powertrain is required. A computer model of the heavy duty truck system was built and evaluated. The model includes both conventional and hybrid powertrains. It uses a series of interacting sub-models for the vehicle, transmission, engine, exhaust aftertreatment and braking energy recovery/storage devices. A specified driving cycle is used to calculate the power requirements at the wheels and energy flow and inefficiencies throughout the drivetrain.
Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Temperature Telemetry System

1992-02-01
920232
The measurement of piston temperature in a reciprocating engine has historically been a very time-consuming and expensive process. Several conditions exist in an engine that measurement equipment must be protected against. Acceleration forces near 2000 G's occur at TDC in automotive engines at rated speed. Operating temperatures inside the crankcase can range to near 150°C. To allow complete mapping of piston temperature, several measuring locations are required in the piston and data must be obtained at various engine operating conditions. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a telemetry-based system that withstands the harsh environments mentioned above. The device is attached to the underside of a piston and temperature data is transmitted to a receiving antenna in the engine crankcase. The key element of this device is a tiny power generator which utilizes the reciprocating motion of the piston to generate electricity thus allowing the transmitter to be self-powered.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle

1991-09-01
911791
The key words in the marketplace for off-highway vehicles are durability, performance, and efficiency. A manufacturer of these vehicles recognizes that one way to successfully address these needs is by a well thought through electronics design. With the computer sophistication now being incorporated into off-highway vehicles, engineers must work closely to assure electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the entire system. A properly established EMC program extending from concept to final design will support each of a product's specified operations and still function as an integrated whole. This paper describes the process for designing the EMC for an off-highway vehicle.
Technical Paper

Electronic Data Acquisition and Analysis for the NHTSA ABS Fleet Evaluation

1990-10-01
902264
Antilock brake systems for air braked vehicles have been growing in popularity in Great Britain and Europe and appear to be candidates for extensive use in the United States as well. Previous mandated use in the United States during the 1970's was not successful, in part because of reliability problems, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has decided that a thorough evaluation of air brake antilock systems is necessary prior to any decision about the appropriateness of future mandatory use in the United States. This paper describes the electronic data collection equipment and processing techniques which are being used in the NHTSA 200 truck evaluation project. Detailed maintenance histories for each truck are being recorded manually as a separate segment of the project. An average of 6 to 7 megabytes of data per week is being collected in the various cities in which fleets are operating test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Automated Planning and Resource Management in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

1987-02-01
870111
The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a fully automated robot submarine that is capable of maintaining a set of electronic sensors under the polar icecap. This function is primarily an issue of automated planning. The AUV is driven by three independent, and often conflicting, goals. These are mission, survival, and covertness. The plan that must be generated is essentially a route to achieve a mission that is acceptable to all three goals. The conflicting goals are implemented as independent expert systems that place constraints on the route taken. A higher level arbiter is used to help resolve conflicts in the situations where restraints posed by the independent goals preclude any solution being found.
Technical Paper

Options for the Introduction of Methanol as a Transportation Fuel

1987-11-01
872166
It is generally recognized chat methanol is the best candidate for long-term replacement of petroleum-based fuels at soma time in the future. The transition from an established fuel to a new fuel, and vehicles that can use the new fuel, is difficult, however. This paper discusses two independent investigations of possible transition uses of methanol, which, when combined, may provide an option for introduction of methanol that takes advantage of the existing industrial base, and provides economic incentives to the consumer. The concept combines the intermediate blends of methanol and gasoline (50%-70% methanol) with the Flexible Fuel Vehicle. In addition to a possible maximum cost effectiveness, these fuels ease vehicle range restrictions due to refueling logistics, and mitigate cold starting problems, while at the same time providing most of the performance of the higher concentration blends.
Technical Paper

Army Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Estimate Selected Properties of Compression Ignition Fuels

1993-03-01
930734
The U.S. Army has long identified the need for rapid, reliable methods for analysis of fuels and lubricants on or near the battlefield. The analysis of fuels and lubricants under battlefield or near-battlefield conditions requires that the equipment be small, portable, rugged, quick, and easy to use. Over the past 15 to 20 years, several test kits and portable laboratories have been developed in response to this need. One instrumental technique that has been identified as a likely candidate to meet this need is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). To evaluate NIR as a candidate, a set of 280 fuel samples was used. This sample set contained samples of diesel fuel grades 1 and 2, Jet A-l, JP-5, and JP-8. Inspection data were collected on all the fuels as sample size permitted. Each sample was then scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Data analysis, model building, and calibration were conducted using a software package supplied with the instrument.
Technical Paper

Lean NOx Catalyst Evaluation and Characterization

1993-03-01
930736
Copper ion exchange procedures were used to prepare zeolite-based catalysts for NOx reduction in lean (oxygen-rich) exhaust. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the presence of copper in the zeolite matrix. Zeolites were applied onto honeycomb and foam substrates, and evaluated for catalytic NOx reduction efficiency using engine exhaust. Copper-exchanged zeolite catalysts prepared for this study revealed NOx reduction of 95 percent for a period of seven minutes using previously adsorbed exhaust hydrocarbons as the reducing agent. Experiments using ethylene injection to supplement the exhaust suggest long-term and sustained NOx reduction, initially observed at 52 percent. Experimental results and performance comparisons of ZSM-5, mordenite, and Y-type zeolites are discussed. Zeolite catalysts based on Cu-mordenite showed high levels of initial NOx reduction, while results using Cu-ZSM-5 suggested better long-term activity.
Technical Paper

Intricacies of SAE #2 Computerized Clutch Friction Durability Testing

1993-10-01
932847
This paper discusses the implications of computerizing the SAE #2 clutch friction durability tests that General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company require for automatic transmission fluid certification. There are three reasons for this paper. 1) Friction durability testing is a significant part of a much larger battery of tests needed to qualify a fluid. 2)There have been recent modifications concerning computerization of both the Ford and GM tests. 3) Because there are only two OEM qualified testing facilities, the details of certain testing intricacies in the areas of data acquisition, reduction and reporting may not be as understood as well as in other areas of automotive-based standardized testing. Formulators of automatic transmission fluid need to be aware of all details surrounding the collection and evaluation of the data that will result in the final test report.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in the Off-Highway Vehicle: Part IV Electronic Design for EMC

1993-09-01
932429
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design considerations have a vital role in the proper functioning of the electronic circuits and systems of a modern off-highway vehicle (OHV). Careful planning is needed in developing the electronic systems that operate the various functions and tasks on these vehicles. Incorporation of EMC in a system design gives that system the quality of reliability; that is, the system will have reduced emissions and be less susceptible to radiated and conducted electromagnetic energy. This paper provides ideas, concepts, and guidelines that the designer of OHV control circuitry can use for incorporation of EMC at the beginning of a design project.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Testing of an Electric Competition Vehicle

1991-08-01
911684
A Dodge Omni electric car was prepared for competition in an electric “stock car” 2-hour endurance event: the inaugural Solar and Electric 500 Race, April 7, 1991. This entry utilized a series-wound, direct-current 21-hp electric motor controlled by an SCR frequency and pulse width modulator. Two types of lead-acid batteries were evaluated and the final configuration was a set of 16 (6-volt each) deep-cycle units. Preparation involved weight and friction reduction; suspension modification; load, charge and temperature instrumentaltion; and electrical interlock and collision safety systems. Vehicle testing totalled 15 hours of operation. Ranges observed in testing with the final configuration were from 30 to 52 miles for loads of 175 to 90 amperes. These were nearly constant, continuous discharge cycles. The track qualifying speed (64mph) was near the 68 mph record set by the DEMI Honda at the event on the one-mile track.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control

1992-02-01
920847
This paper describes the findings of a laboratory effort to demonstrate improved automotive exhaust emission control with a cold-start hydrocarbon collection system. The emission control strategy developed in this study incorporated a zeolite molecular sieve in the exhaust system to collect cold-start hydrocarbons for subsequent release to an active catalytic converter. A prototype emission control system was designed and tested on a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Continuous raw exhaust emission measurements upstream and downstream of the zeolite molecular sieve revealed collection, storage, and release of cold-start hydrocarbons. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results show a 35 percent reduction in hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-transient segment (Bag 1) due to adsorption by the zeolite.
X