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Technical Paper

Measurement of the Instantaneous Distribution of Momentum in Diesel Injection Nozzle Fuel Jets

Because of its dominant role in diesel engine performance and emissions, the fuel injection process has become an area of very active research and development. It is now clear that location, shape, rate of development, and mass flow distribution within each fuel jet are all important in controlling fuel air mixing, wall interactions, combustion rate, and the resulting levels of emissions. The objective of this project was to develop an instrument for measurement of the instantaneous fuel mass and momentum distribution in the jets issuing from diesel injection nozzles. The goal was to develop an instrument concept that can be used in the laboratory for fundamental measurements, as well as a quality control system for use in manufacture of the injection nozzles. The concept of the instrument is based on the measurement of the instantaneous momentum of the fuel jet as it impacts on a surface equipped with pressure sensitive elements.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects and Compensation in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

The effect of humidity on the lean misfire limit and emissions from a lean burn, natural gas engine is described in this paper, along with a description of a practical humidity compensation method for incorporation into an electronic control system. Experiments to determine the effects of humidity on the lean limit and emissions are described. Humidity increases were shown to decrease the rate of combustion, reduce NOx emissions, and increase the levels of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Data and calculations are also presented which demonstrate that increases in humidity will cause enleanment in a typical closed loop control system utilizing a universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. A prototype system for humidity sensing and subsequent compensation based on these findings was implemented, and the system was found, through additional testing, to compensate for humidity very effectively.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control

This paper describes the findings of a laboratory effort to demonstrate improved automotive exhaust emission control with a cold-start hydrocarbon collection system. The emission control strategy developed in this study incorporated a zeolite molecular sieve in the exhaust system to collect cold-start hydrocarbons for subsequent release to an active catalytic converter. A prototype emission control system was designed and tested on a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Continuous raw exhaust emission measurements upstream and downstream of the zeolite molecular sieve revealed collection, storage, and release of cold-start hydrocarbons. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results show a 35 percent reduction in hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-transient segment (Bag 1) due to adsorption by the zeolite.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.
Technical Paper

Microcomputer Control System Design for a Tracked Amphibious Vehicle

A 14-ton tracked amphibious vehicle has been equipped with a hydrostatic drivetrain that consists of land drive and seaborne transmissions. The transmissions and the vehicle's engine are under microcomputer control. In addition, the microcomputer reads operator inputs and does operational checks of the vehicle's various subsystems. If arty of the subsystems is found to be degraded in their performance the microcomputer informs the operator. This paper presents an overview of the drivetrain systems and the implementation of the control and diagnostic systems.
Technical Paper

Application of a Commercially Available Process Control Computer to Engine Testing

This paper describes a distributed digital process control computer designed for large industrial processing plants that has been applied successfully to laboratory engine testing. Over the past two years several complete systems have been installed and adapted to control engines from 75 kW to over 1800 kW with various dynamometer/generator absorption devices. Control problems encountered, and solutions we have found, are discussed along with the wide range of capabilities this type of system can provide. A short comparison is made between distributed digital control systems and mini-computers, listing advantages and disadvantages of both.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for Retrofit Automated Manual Transmissions

For transmission suppliers tooled primarily for producing manual transmissions, retrofitting a manual transmission with actuators and a controller is business viable. It offers a low cost convenience for the consumer without losing fuel economy when compared to torque converter type automatics. For heavy duty truck fleets even the estimated 3% gain in fuel economy that the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) offers over the manual transmission can result in lower operational costs. This paper provides a case study using a light duty transmission retrofitted with electric actuation for gears and the clutch. A high level description of the control algorithms and hardware is included. Clutch control is the most significant component of the AMT controller and it is addressed in detail during operations such as vehicle launch from rest, launch from coast and launch on grades.
Technical Paper

Diesel Catalyst Aging using a FOCAS® HGTR, a Diesel Burner System, to Simulate Engine-Based Aging

The classical approach to prepare engine exhaust emissions control systems for evaluation and certification is to condition the fresh parts by aging the systems on an engine/dynamometer aging stand. For diesel systems this can be a very lengthy process since the estimated service life of the emissions control systems can be several hundred thousand miles. Thus full useful life aging can take thousands of engine bench aging hours, even at elevated temperatures, making aging a considerable cost and time investment. Compared to gasoline engines, diesel engines operate with very low exhaust gas temperatures. One of the major sources of catalyst deactivation is exposure to high temperature [ 1 ].
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Heat Transfer in a Diesel Engine: Low Heat Rejection Engine Revisited

A large amount of the heat generated during the engine combustion process is lost to the coolant system through the surrounding metal parts. Therefore, there is a potential to improve the overall cycle efficiency by reducing the amount of heat transfer from the engine. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool has been used to evaluate the effects of a number of design and operating variables on total heat loss from an engine to the coolant system. These parameters include injection characteristics and orientation, shape of the piston bowl, percentage of EGR and material property of the combustion chamber. Comprehensive analyses have been presented to show the efficient use of the heat retained in the combustion chamber and its contribution to improve thermal efficiency of the engine. Finally, changes in design and operating parameters have been suggested based on the analytical results to improve heat loss reduction from an engine.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Criteria Pollutant Emissions from D-EGR® Light Duty Vehicle

In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Technical Paper

Using Advanced Emission Control Systems to Demonstrate LEV II ULEV on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

A program to demonstrate the performance of advanced emission control systems in light of the California LEV II light-duty vehicle standards and the EPA's consideration of Tier II emission standards was conducted. Two passenger cars and one light-duty pick-up truck were selected for testing, modification, and emission system performance tuning. All vehicles were 1997 Federal Tier I compliant. The advanced emission control technologies evaluated in this program included advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density substrates, and advanced thermally insulated exhaust components. Using these engine-aged advanced emission control technologies and modified stock engine control strategies (control modifications were made using an ERIC computer intercept/control system), each of the three test vehicles demonstrated FTP emission levels below the proposed California LEV II 193,000 km (120,000 mile) ULEV levels.
Technical Paper

ERIC - A System to Modify Vehicle Emissions Through Computer Controlled Signal Interception

A computer controlled system capable of intercepting and performing closed-loop control of a vehicle subsystem during targeted modes of operation was developed. The system has been given the acronym ERIC, for Emissions Reduction Intercept and Control system. This study was prompted by the need for the ability to modify engine controls through targeted modes of operation, without altering the majority of engine operation, to assist in the integration of exhaust aftertreatment and engine systems. The general concept and approach for applying the ERIC method, and application of the system to perform targeted, mode-activated EGR control intercept on a 1997 Ford Crown Victoria, are described in this paper. Data are presented that demonstrate how the problem mode was identified, targeted, mapped, and modified. FTP-75 test data are presented to show the impact of this particular application.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Aging of NOx Sensors in Heavy-Duty Engine Exhaust

Research has shown that there are many factors that affect the long-term performance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) control systems used in diesel engine applications. However, if the NOx emissions can be accurately monitored, it might be possible to restore performance by making adjustments to the control systems. This paper presents results from a study that tested the durability of 25 NOx sensors exposed to heavy-duty diesel exhaust for 6,000 hours. The study, conducted by the Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) project, tested the sensors at various locations in the exhaust stream.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Alternative Combustion, Airflow-Dominant Control and Aftertreatment System for Clean Diesel Vehicles

A new diesel engine system adopting alternative combustion with rich and near rich combustion, and an airflow-dominant control system for precise combustion control was used with a 4-way catalyst system with LNT (lean NOx trap) to achieve Tier II Bin 5 on a 2.2L TDI diesel engine. The study included catalyst temperature control, NOx regeneration, desulfation, and PM oxidation with and without post injection. Using a mass-produced lean burn gasoline LNT with 60,000 mile equivalent aging, compliance to Tier II Bin 5 emissions was confirmed for the US06 and FTP75 test cycles with low NVH, minor fuel penalty and smooth transient operation.
Technical Paper


An airflow-dominant control system was developed to provide precise engine and exhaust treatment control with low air fuel ratio alternative combustion. The main elements of the control logic include a real-time state observer for in-cylinder oxygen mass estimation, a simplified packaging scheme for all air-handling and fueling parameters, a finite state machine for control mode switching, combustion control models to maintain robust alternative combustion during transients, and smooth rich/lean switching during lean NOx trap (LNT) regeneration without post injection. The control logic was evaluated on a passenger car equipped with a 4-way catalyst system with LNT and was instrumental in achieving US Tier II Bin 5 emission targets with good drivability and low NVH.
Technical Paper

Effects of Catalyst Formulation on Vehicle Emissions With Respect to Gasoline Fuel Sulfur Level

Proposed emissions standards will require that emissions control systems function at extremely high efficiency. Recently, studies have shown that elevated gasoline fuel sulfur levels (GFSL) can impair catalytic converter efficiency. In this study, a variety of tri-metal catalysts were evaluated to determine if formulation changes could reduce emissions sensitivity to GFSL. Catalysts with elemental composition similar to an OEM, but with double the precious metal (PM) loading, were evaluated using 38 and 620 ppm GFSL. Doubling the PM loading significantly reduced catalyst sensitivity to sulfur. Doubling the rhodium loading, at the expense of the platinum loading, significantly improved NOx emission sulfur sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Accessory Electrification in Class 8 Tractors

Fuel costs to operate large trucks have risen substantially in the last few years and, based on petroleum supply/demand curves, that trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Non-propulsion or parasitic loads in a large truck account for a significant percentage of overall engine load, leading to reductions in overall vehicle fuel economy. Electrification of parasitic loads offers a way of minimizing non-propulsion engine loads, using the full motive force of the engine for propulsion and maximizing vehicle fuel economy. This paper covers the integration and testing of electrified accessories, powered by a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) in a Class 8 tractor. It is a continuation of the efforts initially published in SAE paper 2005-01-0016.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefits of Electric and Hydraulic Off Engine Accessories

This paper will describe the fuel economy benefits that can be obtained when traditionally engine-driven accessories such as water pumps, oil pumps, power steering pumps, radiator cooling fans and air conditioning compressors are decoupled from the engine and are remotely driven and controlled. Simulation results for different vehicle configurations such as heavy duty trucks operated over urban and highway driving cycles and light duty vehicles such as mini vans will be presented. These results will quantify the heavy dependence of fuel economy benefits associated with different types of driving cycles.